History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in MDCCCXV to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in MDCCCLII. (E-bok fra Google)

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W. Blackwood & Sons, 1856
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Division of races in Turkey renders government more easy
9
The military strength of the empire entirely derived from the Turks
10
The whole civil business of the country is conducted by the Greeks ib 13 Great and rapid increase of the Christians compared to the Turks
11
1415 Picture of the Servians by Lamartine 1214
12
State of Turkey at this period
13
Its weakness in a military point of view
14
General decrease of population in Turkey
15
Her merits as a critic
16
Statistics of Turkey
17
his early riso
18
The lives and property of all belong to the Sultan
19
Great extent of laud in Turkey held in mortmain
20
Injury done to Turkey by importation
21
Universal venality in the holders of office
22
Ruinous weakness of the Executive
23
Venality and corruption of justice
24
Contrary principles of good in Turkey Weakness of power
25
And want of the means of communication ib 27 Excellent qualities in the Turkish character
26
The Theory of the central government is comparatively mild
27
Institution of Ayams
28
The village system
29
Small revenue derived from Turkey 32 Great population of the towns and decline of the country
30
Multitude of idle servants in the country
31
Variable strength of the Turkish empire
32
Great vicissitudes in the history of Turkey
33
Independent position of the larger pashas and consequent weakness of the central power
34
Vast influence of Constantinople on the fortunes of mankind
35
Successes of the Turks in the Morea
36
Description of the city
37
Raising of the siege of Athens and defeat of the Turks in Therinopyl
38
its description
39
Description of the city as seen from the sea
40
Defects of its interior
41
Population of Constantinople and equality of the sexes
42
Maritime forces of Turkey and Greece 44 The Janizaries
43
Operations of Chourchid Pasha before Janina Fall and recapture
44
Turkish cavalry
45
The advantages of the Turks in this respect are now lost
46
In what the strength of the Turks now consists
47
Where are the Turks now strongest in war?
48
Turkish fortifications
49
Their mode of defending them
50
Causes of the obstinate defence of fortified cities by the Turks
51
Russian mode of fighting the Turks
52
Triple barrier which defends Constantinople
53
The Danube as a frontier stream 65 The Balkan
54
38 39 ib 40 41 4 3 44 45 ib 47 ib 48 4 0 50 51
55
Country between the Balkan and Constantinople
56
Sensation this produced at Constantinople
57
its description
58
Asiatic defence of Turkey The Caucasus
59
Its value as a military barrier
60
Description of the passes through the Caucasus
61
Description of Asia Minor
62
Military resources of Asia Minor
63
Mountainous nature of the country and want of roads
64
The Caucasian tribes
65
Russian policy of intervention
66
Examples of the application of this principle
67
Intervention of Peter the Great in the affairs of neighbouring states
68
Establishment of the Russians in the Caucasus and on the Caspian
69
Acceptance of the crown of Georgia by the Emperor Alexander
70
Wars with the Caucasians and fresh rupture with Turkey and Persia
71
Battle of Elizabethpol
72
Glorious peace with Persia
73
Affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia
74
Russian system of intervention regarding them
75
Repeated insurrections of the Greeks
76
Mutual exasperation of the Greeks and Turks
77
Insurrection of Ali Pasha 79 Statistics of Greece
78
Glorious results of this campaign to the Greeks
79
Defensible nature of the country
80
Clarkes description of Greece 53CHAPTER XIV
81
Negotiations with Russia during the year
82
The Congress of Verona declines to recognise the Greek state
83
Revolution at Constantinople in favour of the janizaries
84
Assassination of the Russian minister at Teheran and siege of Akhalzikh by the Turks
85
Siege of the fortress by the Turks
86
Dreadful fire at Constantinople in spring 1823
87
Divisions among the Greeks
88
Plan of the campaign on the part of the Turks
89
Dispositions of the Greeks
90
Early successes of the Greeks
91
Victory of the Greeks on Mount Helicon
92
Divisions among the Greeks in the Moren
93
Revolt of the Albanians and advance of the Pasha of Scodra
94
Nocturnal surprise of the Turks and death of Mark Bozzaris
95
Commencement of the siege of Anatolico
96
9G Battle of Kninly 97 Success of the Russians in the centre and on the left
97
Defeat of the Seraskier
98
Arto
99
Increasing interest in Greece abroad
100
ldO
101
Contraction of the Greek loan
102
Preparations and plan of the campaign by the Turks
103
Operations of the Turks in the Archipelago
104
Attack on Spczzia and IpBara
105
Retreat of Paskewitch to Erzeroum
106
Defeat of the Turks in Guriel and subsequent checks of the Russians
107
Advance of Paskewitch against Baibout
108
Total defeat of the Turks and termination of the campaign
109
Conclusion of an armistice and summary of the campaign
110
Preparations of the Turks for the campaign in Turkey in Europe
111
Preparations of the Russians
112
Operations during the winter
113
Retirement of Wittgenstein and appointment of Diebitch to the com mandinchief
114
111
115
Russian plan of the campaign and Turkish and repulse of the latter at Sizepolis
116
Commencement of the campaign on both sides
117
Bloody combats at EskiAruautlar
118
Commencement of the siege of Silistria and its description
119
First operations of the siege and Redschid Pashas movement against Pra vadi
120
Diebitch throws himself on the Turkish communications
121
Description of the country and movements of the armies
122
Turkish movements
123
Battle of Kouleftscha
124
Fresh dispositions of Diebitch
125
Victory of the Russians
126
Causes of this miserable state of the working classes
127
Way in which the division of land affected the industry of the country
128
Immense burdens on the land in France
129
Crowding of the inhabitants of towns from these causes
130
Effect of the destruction of commercial capital during the Revolution
131
Excessive general competition and wretched state of the working classc
132
Want of any representation of the working classes 134 Were the ordonnances illegal? 133 Previous instances of royal ordonnances not objected
133
Reasons why coups detat are necessary in France
138
Arrival of Lord Byron at Missolonghi
173
174
174
Capture and destruction of Ipsara
178
Glorious resistance of the Psarriotes
179
Immense spoil made by the Turks in Ipsara
180
Gallant conduct of the Greeks after this disaster
181
Defeat of the Turks in the straits of Samoa
182
Junction of the Turkish and Egyptian fleets
183
Naval victories of the Greeks
184
Land operations in eastern Greece
186
Renewed dissensions in Greece
187
Death ofOdysseus
188
Curious statistics of Athens and Attica
189
Favourable prospects of Greece in the opening of 1825
190
Preparations of the Turks ib 120 Landing of Ibrahim Pasha at Modon
191
Defeatof the Greeks by Ibrahim Pasha
192
Capture of Sphacteria by Ibrahim
193
Naval successes of the Greeks
195
Victory of Sakhtouri over the Capitan Pasha
196
Successes of Ibrahim and gallant resistance near Arcadia
197
Further successes of Ibrahim and capture of Tripolitza
198
Fresh defeat of the Greeks
200
First operations of the siege
201
Raising of the blockade of Missolonghi by sea
202
Attack on the town by a mound and its defeat ib 133 A third assault is repulsed
203
Critical position of the Turks and preparations of the Sultan
204
Heroic spirit of the garrison
205
Progress of the Turks
207
Greek plan of a general sortie 139 Commencement of the sortie
208
Issue of the sortie
209
Vast effects of the siege of Missolonghi and general despondence in Greece
210
GREEK BEVOLUTIONBATTLE OF NAVARINO LNDEPENDKNCE ESTABLISHMENT OF GREEK
211
Ibrahims war of extermination in the Morea
223
Plans of the admirals in consequence
224
Elements remaining of Grecian resurrection 2 Recent favourable circumstances in the condition of Greece 80
225
Commencement of the battle ib 162 The battle and defeat of the Turks
226
Results of the action
228
Ibrahims proceedings after the battle
229
Final rupture of the Turks with the allied powers
230
Universal transports in Greece at the battle
231
Immense sensation produced by the news over Christendom ib 108 Who was the aggressor at Navarino?
232
The Greek war was a strife of religion and race not principles
233
The great error committed was that the European nations did not sooner interfere and in behalf of the Greeks
234
Difficulty of the eastern question
235
CHAPTER XV
238
Rupture with the Mahommedan powers on the accession of Nicholas
239
Advantages gained by Russia over Persia ib 4 Repeated defeats of the Persians by the Russians
240
Statistics of Russia at this period
241
State of the negotiations between Russia and Turkey
242
Measures contemplated against the janizaries
243
New statute regarding the janizaries
244
Vigorous measures of Sultan Mahmoud
246
Defeat of the janizaries ib 12 Cruel executions in Constantinople
247
Effect of this revolution on the negotiations with Russia
249
Civil reforms of the Sultan
250
Conferences at Ackerman and demands of Russia
251
The Russian demands are acceded to without reservation
252
Their disastrous consequences to Turkey
253
Sultan Mahmoud contiuues his reforms
254
Internal reforms of Nicholas in Russia
255
Operations in Persia
256
Battle of DjevanBoulak
257
Battle of the Abbarane
258
Fall of Sardarabad and Erivan
259
Capture of Tauris
261
First operations Fall of Kustendji
271
its description
272
Commencement of the siege
273
Bloody repulse of the assault ib 41 Fall of the place
274
Further successes of the Russians and Turkish system of defence
275
Capture of Anapa by the Russians
276
Combat of Bazardjik
277
Further cavalry actions ti 46 General cavalry action before Schumla
278
Blockade of Schumla and plans of the Russians
279
Journey of the Emperor to Odessa and measures adopted there
280
Position of the Russians
281
Defensive measures of the Turks
282
Surprise of a Russian redoubt
283
Attack on Prince Eugene and EskiStamboul
284
Retreat of the Russians from the south of Schumla
285
Operations before Varna ib 56 Attack on Wittgenstein
286
Siege of Varna
287
Advance of the Turks to raise the siege ib 59 Bloody defeat of the Russians
289
The siege is not interrupted ib 61 Fall of Varna
290
Reflections on this surrender
291
Operations before Widdin
292
Abandonment of the siege of Silistria and retreat of the Russians beyond the Danube
293
Disastrous retreat of Wittgenstein
294
114
295
Description of the theatre of war
296
Siege of Kara
297
Siege of Kara and its description
298
Its fall ib 71 Appearance of the plague in the Russian army
299
Capture of Akhalzikh
301
Paskewitchs plan of attack and its chances
302
Nocturnal attack on the Turkish camp
303
Its perilous chances ib 77 Desperate conflict on the heights
304
Total defeat of the Turks
305
Page
306
118
340
Measures of Diebitcb after the battle
348
Progress of the siege of Silistria and its fall
349
Description of the passes of the Balkan
350
Diebitchs preparations for passing the Balkan
351
117
352
Subsequent movements of the Turks and Russians
353
Successful attack on the Turks at Selimno
354
Advance upon Adrianople and its capture ib 135 Extended positions of the Russians
356
Unbounded alarm at Constantinople London and Vienna
357
Treaty of Adrianople 858
359
Irruption of the Pasha of Scodra ib 140 Affairs of Greece in 1828
360
Commencement of the negotiations for the independence of Greece 144 Conclusion of the first protocol in favour of the Greeks 145 Its provisions 1...
362
Progress of the Greeks in 1829 861
363
143144 Reflections on this convention 364365
364
Remarkable words of the Emperor Nicholas on this subject
366
What of the alleged regeneration of Turkey
367
Astute policy of Russia in the treaty of Adrianople
368
Difficulty of the conquest of Turkey evinced in this war
369
Great strength of Russia in force and of Turkey in situation
370
Cause of the strength of Russia in defensive and its weakness in offensive war
371
Dangers of the Russian position in regard to Turkey ib 152 The final triumph of Christianity in Turkey is secure
372
CHAPTER XVI
373
Character of Charles X
374
His defects
375
The Duke dAngouleme is declared Dauphin
376
The secret Camarilla of ecclesiastics
377
Entry of the king into Paris
378
Abolition of the censorship of the press
379
Dangers of this step
380
Increase of the Jesuits influence at the court and their efforts in the country
381
Strength of the Jesuit party in the legislature and the administration
383
Their opponents iu the Chambers and the press
384
Injudicious measure regarding the army
385
comparative strength of parties
386
Flourishing state of the finances
387
Restoration of the estates of the Orleans family
388
Law of indemnity to the sufferers by the Revolution
389
Embarrassment of the Government from other claims
393
2430 Argument against the project by the Liberals 394398
394
and other Liberals
399
Law against sacrilege
400
Law regarding religious societies of women
401
Measure of M de Villele for the reduction of the debt ib 86 Coronation of the King at Rheims
403
Prosecutions against the Liberal press
404
Death and character of General Foy
405
Death and character of M de Serres
406
Recognition of the independence of St Domingo
407
Negotiations for the independence of the Spanish colonies
408
its necessity
409
4446 Argument against the law by M Pasquier 410412
410
4749 Answer of the Government 413414
413
Result of the debate
415
Reflections on this subject ib 52 Statistics of finances of 1826 and 1827
417
Measures of the Jesuits ib 54 Preceptor to the Duke of Bordeaux
418
Denunciation of the Jesuits by Count Montlouis
419
Answer of the Jesuits ib 57 Law against the liberty of the press
420
Its provisions
421
Universal indignation which it excites
422
Passing of the law in a mitigated form
423
Riot at the funeral of the Duke de la Rochefoucauld
424
Review of the National Guard
425
Disbanding of the National Guard
426
Its immediate success and ultimate effects ib 65 Reflections on this event
427
Deplorable situation of Greece at this period 148 Naval operations 149 Progress of the siege of Athens 150 Unsuccessful attempts to raise the siege of...
428
Financial projects and embarrassment of the Government
429
A dissolution resolved on ib 69 New creation of Peers and dissolution of the Chambers
430
Formation of the parties and preparations for a mortal struggle on both sides 4 32
433
Mutual recriminations of Ministers and the Jesuits
434
Dissolution of the Villele Administration
435
Reproaches addressed to him from both parties
436
Character of M de Martignac
437
The new Ministry had not the confidence of the King
438
J 14
439
Legislative measures of the session
440
It passes the Peers
441
New law regarding the press
442
Law against the Jesuits ib 82 Indignation excited among the Jesuits but tho Pope approves the measure
443
Preparations for a change of Ministry
444
Opening of the Chambers
445
Remarkable speech of Prince Polignac
446
CHAPTER XVII
453
His character
454
Character of M de la Bourdonnaye
455
de Bourmont
456
de Montbel M de Courvoisin and M de Chabrol
457
Lafayettes triumphant journey in the couth
459
his biography
460
His character as a writer and statesman
461
Berryer
462
Thiers
463
1317 Prince Polignacs Memoir 464467
464
Vast influence of the press in France
468
Vehement hostility of the press at the Polignac Ministry
469
Opening of the Chambers
470
Votes on the Presidency and Address of the Chambers
471
Debate on the Address
473
2628 Answer of M Guizot and the Liberals 475477
475
Vote on the subject
477
Measures of Ministers in consequence
478
The Kings answer to the Address
479
Prorogation of the Chambers and general agitation it excited
480
Prosecutions against the press
481
Report of the Finance Minister ib 35 Its important statistical details
482
Indirect taxes and general revenue
483
General prosperity which prevailed in the country
484
General prosperity and discontent
485
Expedition of Algiers
487
Magnitude of the expedition and its departure
488
Landing at SidiFeruch near Algiers
489
CHAPTER XVIII
590
Second victory of the French
598
Great effect of the Revolution on the literature of France 2 Its distinguishing features 3 Violent antagonism between the opposite schools 4 Character ...
657
Modern French school of painting
662
218
668
Mr Wallaces picture of the country from 1815 to 1823
675
Grants for new churches Windsor Castle and the National Gallery
681
Retaliatory measures of other nations
687
Effect of these acts
694
121
696
ib 127 128 129
698
Great increase of the colonial trade has compensated reciprocity decline
700
34 35 Cause of the failure of the Reciprocity System in this respect 702703
702
Commencement of the Freetrade system
704
Reflections on this petition
706
Indication this afforded of the growth of the commercial class
707
Argument of the Protectionists 708711
708
Results of the system of Free Trade as proved by experience
712
130
713
First introduction of Free Trade in reference to it
714
Reduction of duties on foreign wools
716
fiI Reflections on these changes
717
Repeal of laws against emigration of artisans and combinations among workmen
718
Disastrous effects of the change ib 64 Argument in favour of the repeal of the Combination Laws
720
Reflections on this subject
722
Causes of the frequency of strikes
723
System which must be adopted on the subject
724
Its advantages
725
Gloomy aspect of affairs in the West Indies and Ireland
726
Lord Dudleys picture of the empire in the opening of 1825
727
Picture of the country from the Annual Register
728
Picture of the times from the Quarterly Review
729
Sound condition of trade and manufactures to the end of 1824 780
731
Causes of danger which were now impending
733
Excess of imports over exports
735
Drain of specie produced by the South American speculations 786
739
Mr Robinsons argument in favour of the reduction of the duty on spirits
740
Vast increase of crime which has arisen in consequence
741
Reflections on this subject 742743
742
Temperance Leagues
744
Great and wise chauge in the laws regarding our colonial shipping
745
Reflections on this change
747
Approach of the monetary crisis
748
Dreadful severity of the crash
749
Increased circulation forced upon the Government
750
The crash was not owing to the instability of the banks but to the mone 83 Conclusions to be drawn from this catastrophe
752

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Populære avsnitt

Side 56 - Above me are the Alps, The palaces of Nature, whose vast walls Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, And throned Eternity in icy halls Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls The avalanche — the thunderbolt of snow ! All that expands the spirit, yet appals, Gather around these summits, as to show How Earth may pierce to Heaven, yet leave vain man below.
Side 81 - The isles of Greece, the isles of Greece! Where burning Sappho loved and sung, Where grew the arts of war and peace, Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung! Eternal summer gilds them yet, But all, except their sun, is set. The...
Side 139 - And should we thither roam, Its echoes, and its empty tread, Would sound like voices from the dead ! Or shall we cross yon mountains blue, Whose streams my kindred nation quaff'd!
Side 61 - Thus every good his native wilds impart, Imprints the patriot passion on his heart; And e'en those hills that round his mansion rise, Enhance the bliss his scanty fund supplies. Dear is that shed to which his soul conforms, And dear that hill which lifts him to the storms...
Side 704 - That the maxim of buying in the cheapest market, and selling in the dearest, which regulates every merchant in his individual dealings, is strictly applicable, as the best rule for the trade of the whole nation.
Side 706 - But it is against every restrictive regulation of trade not essential to the revenue— against all duties merely protective from foreign competition — and against the excess of such duties as are partly for the purpose of revenue, and partly for that of protection — that the prayer of the present petition is respectfully submitted to the wisdom of parliament.
Side 687 - The act of navigation is not favourable to foreign commerce, or to the growth of that opulence which can arise from it.
Side 704 - ... every other country, each trying to exclude the productions of other countries, with the specious and well-meant design of encouraging its own productions ; thus inflicting on the bulk of its subjects, who are consumers, the necessity of submitting to privations in the quantity or quality of commodities; and thus rendering what ought to be the source of mutual benefit and of harmony among states, a constantly-recurring occasion of jealousy and hostility.
Side 88 - As soon as this notice was given, every family marched solemnly out of its dwelling, without tears or lamentation ; and the men, preceded by their priests and followed by their sons, proceeded to the sepulchres of their fathers, and silently unearthed and collected their remains, — which they placed upon a huge pile of wood which they had previously erected before one of their churches.
Side 61 - Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansions tread, And force a churlish soil for scanty bread. No product here the barren hills afford, But man and steel, the soldier and his sword...

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