from all other his citties and townswithin hiskyngdom,to build andinhabitt ther, and drawe trafficque thether; toke awaye all imposicions; gave them fredom of customs; sett seaven thowsand mazons and worckmen to build a faire stone walle round abowt the Musco, which was finished in fower years space, verie stronge and beietefull, and furnished with verie fare and goodly peces of brass ordinance; settled his offices and officers of justice and governors therin, in manner and form as hertofore yt was, as tyme did permitt. Himself kept much at Vologda, upon the river Dwina, and at Slobida Alexandrisca [Slobode Alexandrowsky]; conferd much with Elizius Bomelius,1 a Doctor of phizicke; sent for skilfull builders, archietaectors, carpenters, joyners, and mazons, gold smyths, phizicions, apothicaris, and such like, owt of England, havinge som purpose in his head which will shortly discover itself; builds a treasor-howse of stone, great barckes and bargies, to convey and transportt upon sudden occasion treasur to Sollavetska monnesterie,* standing upon the North Seas, the direct way into England. He had so flesed his merchants by takinge their comodits to exchainge with straingers for cloth of gold, dollers, perrell, jewells, etc., which he continewally toke into his treasurie, without paieng littell or nothinge, by that means borowinge great soms of citties, towns, and monnesteries, exhastinge all their waelth by great imposicions and customs to augment and increase his ownt reasur, became so odious and in such a desperat case as he devised how to prevent and alter his estate. To adnihill and frustrat all this he had ingaged his crown unto, made a separacion and devicion of his towns, offices, and subiects; called this oprisnoie and the other Zemscoie ;s established a newe Kinge or Emperowr, named Char

1 [A physician of Wesel, in Westphalia. See an account of him in Hamel's " England and Russia," pp. 202-205.]

* [In the island of Solavetskoy, in the White Sea.]

• [See Fletcher, p. 33.]

Symion, the emperor's sonn of Cazan;' resigned his stiell and lent him his crown; transfers all authorite therunto incident; crowns him, but with noe solempnitie nor consent of peers; causeth his subjects to adress themselves and their affares, peticions and sutes, to him; and in his name all privaleges, charters, instruments and writings, to be called in, and new to be published in his name and under his seall. They plead in all courts of justice in his name; quoyns mony, receaves customs, and casuall fines and certan reveynews, for the maintenance of his howse, officers and servants; ys lyable to all depts and matters concerninge his office of treasure. He setts in majestie; the old Emperor Ivan coms and prostrats himself. Causeth his metrapolletts, bishops, priors, noblemen and officers, to do the like, and all ambassadors to resortt before him, which some refused. Was married unto the daughter of Knez Ivan Fedorwich Misthislovske, prince of the bloud royall. These things beinge thus contraverted and chainged, the old Emperor would take noe noatice of any depts owinge in his tyme; lettres pattents, privaleges to towns and monesteries all void. His clargie, nobillite and comons, must now peticion Ivan Vazilewich that he would be pleased to take the crown and goverment upon him againe, upon many condicions and athenticall instruments confirmed by act of Parliament in a verie solemn new inauguration. He was contented; at which infinite guifts and presents wear of all men of any worthe sought owt for to give unto him, amountinge and valued to be a great treasur. He was freed of all old depts and former charge whatsoever. To tedious to recite any more of this tragedie. But that the device of his own head might have sett him clear beside the saddell, yf it had continewed but a littell longer, yt is happie he is become invested again in statu quo prius. Regrants privaleges, jurisdictions, charters to towns, monestaries, and noblemen and merchants, upon 1 [See Fletcher, p. 56.] .

new composicion; for which great soms and fines wear obteyned: sends an army of Tartors, governed by his own captaines, to reconquier, as he terms it, the towns in Livonia, which kinge Stephanous had lately taken from him; propounded a mariage to duke Magnus1 with his brothers daughter, Knez Andrew; sends for his said brother owt of his province of Vaga; had him in jelousy; himself livinge so tiranicallie and in the hatred of his subiects, the other, Knez Andrea, had gotten their harty affections, which he well perceaved. When he came to his presence, he laied himself prostrate to his foate; he toke him up and kissed him. "O cruell brother," with tears, saies the storie, "this is a Judas kiss; thow hast sent for me to noe good end; take thy fill;" and so parted for that tyme. Died the next daie; was buried in Micholsca crest, in the Mosco, solemly. This mariage must goe forward, havinge some relacion to forren ayed. Hartique8 Magnus was eldest sonn to Christianus, duke of Holst [Holstein]; boren before he was elected kinge of Denmarcke; this kinge Fredericke bowren [born] after: betwen whom grew such hatred and dissencion, as he was inforced to exchainge with him for the dukdom of Holst an iland called Osell, in Livonia, his right in Riga and Reavell, kinge John of Swethia competitor therof; also many other townes and castells in Livonia, which the Emperor of Russia had wonne and spoilled from them bothe. He maks upe the match and maries his neece, Llona, to Hartique Magnus; gives him in dower with her

1 [Magnus Duke of Holstein, brother of Frederic King of Denmark, was allured by the specious offers of the Czar Ivan to become a tool of his political schemes, and in the year 1570 was betrothed to Euphemia, daughter to Prince Vladimir Andreieyitch, Ivan's cousin. The marriage was prevented by the death of the princess; but her place was supplied by her sister Maria, to whom Magnus was united in April, 1573.]

* [For the German ffertiog.]

all his interest, towns, castells and posessions, in Livonia, 'doth' establish him therin; stiells and calls him Corcell Magnus, which is King Magnus; gives him a houndred good hors, waell furnished, two houndred thowsand rubles, which is 600,000 dollers in mony, gold and silver vessell, plate and jewells, and rich aparell; gratifies and gives liberall giffts to all followers and servants; conducts and sends, with many 'of' his nobles and ladies with two thowsand hors, the said Kinge and Quene, whoe saw them safflye settled and seated in their estats in that his great town of Dorpe, in Livonia.

I fear I shall fill my discourse with to much of this naracion if I be larger,' I' will therfore leave the rest for his propper place herafter, and goe onward with the storie of the Emperor's lifl". Instead of the alliance and amitie he aymed at of the k[ing] of Denmarcke and k[ing] of Swethia, warrs followes, both of them puttinge him to distress, and the k[ing] of Poland also, whoe gott from him the Narve and besieged Plaesco, two of the chieffest towns he had of trafficque in those parts. The Dane and Swethan inchroacheth upon his parte, being all three competitors in certaine territories upon the northwern coasts, Wardhowse, Colla, Sollavetsca, Varsagae, etc. Puts him from his customs and trafficque, and offers to trowble and deny the English merchants also in their passage for fishinge upon those coasts, and tradinge with him at St. Nicholas and Colmogor.

The emperor Ivan Vazilewich sends for all his nobles and gentilmens fayrest daughters, maidens, thorow out his kyngdoms, and choiseth owt amonge them a wiff for his eldest son, Charwich Ivan. Her name was Natacia, daughter to Ivan Sheremiten, a viovode of a good familley.1 Great feastings and trumps was at the solempnicinge of this mariage,

1 [The name of the damsel selected by Ivan for the Czarowitch's bride, at the time of his own marriage with Marfa Sabakina, was Eudoxia Bogdanovna Saburovna. Her father was of obscure station.]

though worth the relatinge, yet not so pertinent to the discourse in hand.

This Emperor lived in great danger and fear of treasons and his makinge awaye, which he daily discovered; and spent much tyme in the examinacion, torteringe, execution and putting to death, such noble captains and officers that wear found practizers against him. Knez Ivan Curaken beinge found dronck, as was pretended, in Wendon, a fast town in Livonia, when K[ing] Stephanous besiged it, beinge viavode therof, was stripped naked, laied in a cartt, whipped thorow the marcket with six whips of wyer, which cutt 'his' backe, belly, and bowells to death. Another, as I remember, 'cald' Ivan Obrossimove, a master of his hors, was hanged on a gibbett naked by the heels ' heyre of his head'; the skinne and flesh of his body from topp to toe cutt of, and minst with knives into small gobbetts, by fower pallacnicks; the one, wearied with his longe carvinge, thrust his kniff somwhatt farr into his bowells, the sonner to dispatch him, was presentlye had to another place of execution and that hand cutt of; 'which being' not well seard, 'he' died the next daye. Many other wear knocked in the heads, cast into the pools and lakes near Slobida, their flrcsh and carcasses fead upon by such huge overgrowen pieks, carps, and other fishes, so fatt as any other 'anything but fatt' could hardly be deserned upon them. That was the valey compared to Gehenna or Tophett, wher the fathles Egipeians did sacra> fice their children to the hiddeus divills. Knez Borris Telupa, a great favorett of that tyme,'being' discovered to be a treason worcker ' traytor' against the emperor, and confederatt with the discontented nobillitie, was drawen upon a longe sharpe made stake, soped to enter' so made as that it was thrust into' his fundament thorrow his bodye, which came owt at his naeck; upon which he languished in horable paine for fiften howres alive, and spake unto his mother, the Duches, brought to behold that wofull sight. And she, a goodly matronlye

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