CHAP. authors, or the followers of any heretical opinions

which had been condemned by the judgment of the
episcopal order; and against those unhappy persons,
who, whether from choice or from compulsion, had
polluted themselves after their baptism by any act of
idolatrous worship. The consequences of excom-
munication were of a temporal as well as a spiritual
nature. The Christian against whom it was pro-
nounced was deprived of any part in the oblations
of the faithful. The ties both of religious and of
private friendship were dissolved: he found himself
a profane object of abhorrence to the persons whom
he the most esteemed, or by whom he had been the
most tenderly beloved; and as far as an expulsion
from a respectable society could imprint on his cha-
racter a mark of disgrace, he was shunned or sus-
pected by the generality of mankind. The situation
of these unfortunate exiles was in itself very painful
and melancholy ; but, as it usually happens, their
apprehensions far exceeded their sufferings. The
benefits of the Christian communion were those of
eternal life, nor could they erase from their minds
the awful opinion, that to those ecclesiastical go-
vernors by whom they were condemned, the Deity
had committed the keys of Hell and of Paradise.
The heretics, indeed, who might be supported by the
consciousness of their intentions, and by the flattering
hope that they alone had discovered the true path of
salvation, endeavoured to regain, in their separate
assemblies, those comforts, temporal as well as spi-
ritual, which they no longer derived from the great
society of Christians. But almost all those who had
reluctantly yielded to the power of vice or idolatry
were sensible of their fallen condition, and anxiously
desirous of being restored to the benefits of the
Christian communion.
With regard to the treatment of these penitents,

two opposite opinions, the one of justice, the other CoAF.

of mercy, divided the primitive church. The more rigid and inflexible casuists refused them for ever, and without exception, the meanest place in the holy community, which they had disgraced or deserted, and leaving them to the remorse of a guilty conscience, indulged them only with a faint ray of hope, that the contrition of their life and death might possibly be accepted by the Supreme Being." A milder sentiment was embraced in practice as well as in theory, by the purest and most respectable of the Christian churches.” The gates of reconciliation and of Heaven were seldom shut against the returning penitent; but a severe and solemn form of discipline was instituted, which, while it served to expiate his crime, might powerfully deter the spectators from the

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imitation of his example. Humbled by a public con-Public fession, emaciated by fasting, and clothed in sackcloth, penance.

the penitent lay prostrate at the door of the assembly, imploring with tears the pardon of his offences, and soliciting the prayers of the faithful." If the fault was of a very heinous nature, whole years of penance were esteemed an inadequate satisfaction to the Divine Justice; and it was always by slow and painful gradations that the sinner, the heretic, or the apostate, was re-admitted into the bosom of the church. A sentence of perpetual excommunication was, however, reserved for some crimes of an extraordinary magnitude, and particularly for the inexcusable relapses of those penitents who had already experienced and abused the clemency of their ecclesiastical superiors. According to the circumstances or the

• The Montanists and the Novatians, who adhered to this opinion with the greatest rigour and obstinacy, found themselves at last in the number of excommunicated heretics. See the learned and copious Mosheim, Secul. ii. and iii.

P Dionysius ap. Euseb. iv. 23. Cyprian, de Lapsis.

a Cave's Primitive Christianity, part iii. c. 5. The admirers of antiquity regret the loss of this public penance.

number of the guilty, the exercise of the Christian discipline was varied by the discretion of the bishops. The councils of Ancyra and Illiberis were held about the same time, the one in Galatia, the other in Spain; but their respective canons, which are still extant, seem to breathe avery different spirit. The Galatian, who after his baptism had repeatedly sacrificed to idols, might obtain his pardon by a penance of seven years, and if he had seduced others to imitate his example, only three years more were added to the term of his exile. But the unhappy Spaniard, who had committed the same offence, was deprived of the hope of reconciliation, even in the article of death; and his idolatry was placed at the head of a list of seventeen other crimes, against which a sentence no less terrible was pronounced. Among these we may distinguish the inexpiable guilt of calumniating abishop, a presbyter, or even a deacon." The well-tempered mixture of liberality and rigour, the judicious dispensation of rewards and punishments, according to the maxims of policy as well as justice, constituted the human strength of the church. The bishops, whose paternal care extended itself to the government of both worlds, were sensible of the importance of these prerogatives, and covering their ambition with the fair pretence of the love of order, they were jealous of any rival in the exercise of a discipline so necessary to prevent the desertion of those troops which had enlisted themselves under the banner of the cross, and whose numbers every day became more considerable. From the imperious declamations of Cyprian, we should naturally conclude, that the doctrines of excommunication and penance co.


The dig-
nity of epi-
scopal go-

* See in Dupin, Bibliothéque Ecclesiastique, tom. ii. p. 304–313, a short but rational exposition of the canons of those councils, which were assembled in the first moments of tranquillity, after the persecution of Diocletian. This persecution had been much less severely felt in Spain than in Galatia; a difference which may, in some measure, account for the contrast of their regulations.

formed the most essential part of religion; and that it was much less dangerous for the disciples of Christ to neglect the observance of the moral duties, than to despise the censures and authority of their bishops. Sometimes we might imagine that we were listening to the voice of Moses, when he commanded the earth to open, and to swallow up, in consuming flames, the rebellious race which refused obedience to the priesthood of Aaron; and we should sometimes suppose that we heard a Roman consul asserting the majesty of the republic, and declaring his inflexible resolution to enforce the rigour of the laws. “If such irregularities are suffered with impunity (it is thus that the bishop of Carthage chides the lenity of his colleague), if such irregularities are suffered, there is an end of EPIscoPAL v1GoUR ; * an end of the sublime and divine power of governing the church, an end of Christianity itself.” Cyprian had renounced those temporal honours, which it is probable he would never have obtained; but the acquisition of such absolute command over the consciences and understanding of a congregation, however obscure or despised by the world, is more truly grateful to the pride of the human heart, than the possession of the most despotic power, imposed by arms and conquest on a reluctant people.

In the course of this important, though perhaps Recapitu.

tedious, inquiry, I have attempted to display the

lation of the five

secondary causes which so efficaciously assisted the *

truth of the Christian religion. If among these causes we have discovered any artificial ornaments, any accidental circumstances, or any mixture of error and passion, it cannot appear surprising that mankind should be the most sensibly affected by such motives as were suited to their imperfect nature. It was by the aid of these causes, exclusive zeal, the immediate

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expectation of another world, the claim of miracles, the practice of rigid virtue, and the constitution of the primitive church, that Christianity spread itself with so much success in the Roman empire. To the first of these the Christians were indebted for their invincible valour, which disdained to capitulate with the enemy whom they were resolved to vanquish. The three succeeding causes supplied their valour with the most formidable arms. The last of these causes united their courage, directed their arms, and gave their efforts that irresistible weight, which even a small band of well-trained and intrepid volunteers has so often possessed overan undisciplined multitude, ignorant of the subject, and careless of the event of the war. In the various religions of Polytheism, some wandering fanatics of Egypt and Syria, who addressed themselves to the credulous superstition of the populace, were perhaps the only order of priests' that derived their whole support and credit from their sacerdotal profession, and were very deeply affected by a personal concern for the safety or prosperity of their tutelar deities. The ministers of Polytheism, both in Rome and in the provinces, were, for the most part, men of a noble birth, and of an affluent fortune, who received, as an honourable distinction, the care of a celebrated temple, or of a public sacrifice, exhibited, very frequently at their own expense, the sacred games," and with cold indifference performed the ancient rites, according to the laws and fashion of their country. As they were engaged in the ordinary occupations of life, their zeal and devotion were


of Poly-

* The arts, the manners, and the vices of the priests of the Syrian goddess, are very humorously described by Apuleius, in the eighth book of his Metamorphosis.

* The office of Asiarch was of this nature, and it is frequently mentioned in Aristides, the Inscriptions, &c. It was annual and elective. None but the vainest citizens could desire the honour; none but the most wealthy could support the expense. See in the Patres Apostol. tom. ii. p. 200, with how much indifference Philip the Asiarch conducted himself in the martyrdom of Polycarp. There were likewise Bithyniarchs, Lyciarchs, &c.

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