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seldom animated by a sense of interest, or by the CHAP.

habits of an ecclesiastical character. Confined to their respective temples and cities, they remained without any connexion of discipline or government; and whilst they acknowledged the supreme jurisdiction of the senate, of the college of pontiffs, and of the emperor, those civil magistrates contented themselves with the easy task of maintaining, in peace and dignity, the general worship of mankind. We have already seen how various, how loose, and how uncertain were the religious sentiments of Polytheists. They were abandoned, almost without control, to the natural workings of a superstitious fancy. The acci

dental circumstances of their life and situation deter

mined the object as well as the degree of their devotion; and as long as their adoration was successively prostituted to a thousand deities, it was scarcely possible that their hearts could be susceptible of a very sincere or lively passion for any of them.

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When Christianity appeared in the world, even The scep

of their original power. Human reason, which by its unassisted strength is incapable of perceiving the

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these faint and imperfect impressions had lost much on

proved favourable to the new

mysteries of faith, had already obtained an easy religion,

triumph over the folly of Paganism; and when Tertullian or Lactantius employ their labours in exposing its falsehood and extravagance, they are obliged to transcribe the eloquence of Cicero or the wit of Lucian. The contagion of these sceptical writings had been diffused far beyond the number of their readers. The fashion of incredulity was communicated from the philosopher to the man of pleasure or business, from the noble to the plebeian, and from the master to the menial slave who waited at his table, and who eagerly listened to the freedom of his conversation. On public occasions the philosophic part of mankind affected to treat with respect and decency

cHAP, the religious institutions of their country; but their XV.

secret contempt penetrated through the thin and awkward disguise, and even the people, when they discovered that their deities were rejected and derided by those whose rank or understanding they were accustomed to reverence, were filled with doubts and apprehensions concerning the truth of those doctrines, to which they had yielded the most implicit belief. The decline of ancient prejudice exposed a very numerous portion of human kind to the danger of a painful and comfortless situation. A state of scepticism and suspense may amuse a few inquisitive minds. But the practice of superstition is so congenial to the multitude, that if they are forcibly awakened, they still regret the loss of their pleasing vision. Their love of the marvellous and supernatural, their curiosity with regard to future events, and their strong propensity to extend their hopes and fears beyond the limits of the visible world, were the principal causes which favoured the establishment of Polytheism. So urgent on the vulgar is the necessity of believing, that the fall of any system of mythology will most probably be succeeded by the introduction of some other mode of superstition. Some deities of a more recent and fashionable cast might soon have occupied the deserted temples of Jupiter and Apollo, if, in the decisive moment, the wisdom of Providence had not interposed a genuine revelation, fitted to inspire the most rational esteem and conviction, whilst, at the same time, it was adorned with all that could attract the curiosity, the wonder, and the veneration of the people. In their actual disposition, as many were almost disengaged from their artificial prejudices, but equally susceptible and desirous of a devout attachment; an object much less deserving would have been sufficient to fill the vacant place in their hearts, and to gratify the uncertain eagerness of their passions. Those who are inclined to pursue this reflection, instead of viewing with astonishment the rapid progress of Christianity, will perhaps be surprised that its success was not still more rapid and still more universal.


It has been observed, with truth as well as pro- as well as

priety, that the conquests of Rome prepared and

facilitated those of Christianity. In the second .

chapter of this work we have attempted to explain in what manner the most civilized provinces of Europe, Asia, and Africa, were united under the dominion of one sovereign, and gradually connected by the most intimate ties of laws, of manners, and of language. The Jews of Palestine, who had fondly expected a temporal deliverer, gave so cold a reception to the miracles of the divine prophet, that it was found unnecessary to publish, or at least to preserve, any Hebrew gospel." The authentic histories of the actions of Christ were composed in the Greek language, at a considerable distance from Jerusalem, and after the Gentile converts were grown extremely numerous." As soon as those histories were translated into the Latin tongue, they were perfectly intelligible to all the subjects of Rome, excepting only to the peasants of Syria and Egypt, for whose benefit particular versions were afterwards made. The public highways, which had been constructed for the use of the legions, opened an easy passage for the Christian missionaries from Damascus to Corinth, and from Italy to the extremity of Spain or Britain; nor did those spiritual conquerors encounter any of the obstacles which usually retard or prevent the intro

v The modern critics are not disposed to believe what the fathers almost unanimously assert, that St. Matthew composed a Hebrew gospel, of which only the Greek translation is extant. It seems, however, dangerous to reject their testimony.

w Under the reigns of Nero and Domitian, and in the cities of Alexandria, Antioch, Rome, and Ephesus. See Mill. Prolegomena ad Nov. Testament. ; and Dr. Lardner's fair and extensive collection, vol. xv.

the peace and union of the Ro. an empire.


Historical view of the s of

duction of a foreign religion into a distant country. There is the strongest reason to believe, that before the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, the faith of Christ had been preached in every province, and in all the great cities of the empire; but the foundation of the several congregations, the numbers of the

* faithful who composed them, and their proportion to

the unbelieving multitude, are now buried in ob-
scurity, or disguised by fiction and declamation. Such
imperfect circumstances, however, as have reached our
knowledge concerning the increase of the Christian
name in Asia and Greece, in Egypt, in Italy, and in
the West, we shall now proceed to relate, without
neglecting the real or imaginary acquisitions which
lay beyond the frontiers of the Roman empire.
The rich provinces that extend from the Euphrates
to the Ionian sea were the principal theatre on which
the apostle of the Gentiles displayed his zeal and piety.
The seeds of the gospel, which he had scattered in a
fertile soil, were diligently cultivated by his disciples;
and it should seem that, during the two first centu-
ries, the most considerable body of Christians was
contained within those limits. Among the societies
which were instituted in Syria, none were more an-
cient or more illustrious than those of Damascus, of
Berea or Aleppo, and of Antioch. The prophetic
introduction of the Apocalypse has described and
immortalised the seven churches of Asia; Ephesus,
Smyrna, Pergamus, Thyatira, Sardes, Laodicea, and
Philadelphia; and their colonies were soon diffused
over that populous country. In a very early period,
the islands of Cyprus and Crete, the provinces of
Thrace and Macedonia, gave a favourable reception
to the new religion; and Christian republics were

in the East.

* The Alogians (Epiphanius de Haeres. 51.) disputed the genuineness of the Apocalypse, because the church of Thyatira was not yet founded. Epiphanius, who allows the fact, extricates himself from the difficulty by ingeniously supposing, that St. John wrote in the spirit of prophecy. See Abauzit Discours sur l’Apocalypse.

soon founded in the cities of Corinth, of Sparta, and CHAP. of Athens.' The antiquity of the Greek and Asiatic XV. churches allowed a sufficient space of time for their increase and multiplication, and even the swarms of Gnostics and other heretics serve to display the flourishing condition of the orthodox church; since the appellation of heretics has always been applied to the less numerous party. To these domestic testimonies we may add the confession, the complaints, and the apprehensions of the Gentiles themselves. From the writings of Lucian, a philosopher who had studied mankind, and who describes their manners in the most lively colours, we may learn, that, under the reign of Commodus, his native country of Pontus was filled with Epicureans and Christians.” Within fourscore years after the death of Christ,” the humane Pliny laments the magnitude of the evil which he vainly attempted to eradicate. In his very curious epistle to the emperor Trajan, he affirms, that the temples were almost deserted, that the sacred victims scarcely found any purchasers, and that the superstition had not only infected the cities, but had even spread itself into the villages and the open country of Pontus and Bithynia.” Without descending into a minute scrutiny of The church the expressions, or of the motives of those writers “” who either celebrate or lament the progress of Christianity in the East, it may in general be observed, that none of them have left us any grounds from whence

y The epistles of Ignatius and Dionysius (ap. Euseb. iv. 23) point out many churches in Asia and Greece. That of Athens seems to have been one of the least flourishing.

* Lucian in Alexandro, c. 25. Christianity, however, must have been very unequally diffused over Pontus; since in the middle of the third century there were no more than seventeen believers in the extensive diocese of Neo-Caesarea. See M. de Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiast, tom. iv. p. 675, from Basil and Gregory of Nyssa, who were themselves natives of Cappadocia.

* According to the ancients, Jesus Christ suffered under the consulship of the two Gemini, in the year 29 of our present aera. Pliny was sent into Bithynia (according to Pagi) in the year 110. * Plin. Epist. x. 97.

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