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of Bosphorus, a name not less celebrated in the history,

_* than in the fables, of antiquity." A crowd of temples

and of votive altars profusely scattered along its steep and woody banks, attested the unskilfulness, the terrors, and the devotion of the Grecian navigators, who, after the example of the Argonauts, explored the dangers of the inhospitable Euxine. On these banks tradition long preserved the memory of the palace of Phineus, infested by the obscene harpies;" and of the sylvan reign of Amycus, who defied the son of Leda to the combat of the Cestus.“ The straits of the Bosphorus are terminated by the Cyanean rocks, which, according to the description of the poets, had once floated on the face of the waters; and were destined by the gods to protect the entrance of the Euxine against the eye of profane curiosity. From the Cyanean rocks to the point and harbour of Byzantium, the winding length of the Bosphorus extends about sixteen miles," and its most ordinary breadth may be computed at about one mile and a half. The new castles of Europe and Asia are constructed, on either continent, upon the foundations of two celebrated temples, of Serapis and of Jupiter Urius. The old CHAP. castles, a work of the Greek emperors, command the XVII. narrowest part of the channel, in a place where the opposite banks advance within five hundred paces of each other. These fortresses were restored and strengthened by Mahomet the Second, when he meditated the siege of Constantinople:" but the Turkish conqueror was most probably ignorant, that near two thousand years before his reign, Darius had chosen the same situation to connect the two continents by a bridge of boats. At a small distance from the old castles we discover the little town of Chrysopolis, or Scutari, which may almost be considered as the Asiatic suburb of Constantinople. The Bosphorus, as it begins to open into the Propontis, passes between Byzantium and Chalcedon. The latter of those cities was built by the Greeks, a few years before the former; and the blindness of its founders, who overlooked the superior advantages of the opposite coast, has been stigmatised by a proverbial expression of contempt.; The harbour of Constantinople, which may be con- The port. sidered as an arm of the Bosphorus, obtained, in a very remote period, the denomination of the Golden Horn. The curve which it describes might be compared to the horn of a stag, or as it should seem, with more propriety, to that of an ox.” The epithet of

• The Bosphorus has been very minutely described by Dionysius of Byzantium, who lived in the time of Domitian (Hudson Geograph. Minor. tom. iii.), and by Gilles or Gyllius, a French traveller of the 16th century. Tournefort (LettrexV.) seems to have used his own eyes, and the learning of Gyllius.

* There are very few conjectures so happy as that of Le Clerc (Bibliothéque Universelle, tom. i. p. 248), who supposes that the harpies were only locusts. The Syriac or Phoenician name of those insects, their noisy flight, the stench and devastation which they occasion, and the north wind which drives them into the sea, all contribute to form this striking resemblance.

* The residence of Amycus was in Asia, between the old and the new castles, at a place called Laurus Insana. That of Phineus was in Europe, near the village of Mauromole and the Black Sea. See Gyllius de Bosph. l. ii. c. 23. Tournefort, Lettre XV.

f The deception was occasioned by several pointed rocks, alternately covered and abandoned by the waves. At present there are two small islands, one towards either shore; that of Europe is distinguished by the column of Pompey.

g The ancients computed one hundred and twenty stadia, or fifteen Roman miles. They measured only from the new castles, but they carried the straits as far as the town of Chalcedon.

* Ducas. Hist. c.34. Leunclavius Hist. Turcica Musulmanica, l. xv. p. 577. Under the Greek empire these castles were used as state prisons, under the tremendous name of Lethe, or towers of oblivion. | Darius engraved in Greek and Assyrian letters, on two marble columns, the names of his subject nations, and the amazing numbers of his land and sea forces. The Byzantines afterwards transported these columns into the city, and used them for the altars of their tutelar deities. Herodotus, l. iv. c. 87. j Namgue artissimo inter Europam Asiamgue divortio Byzantium in extremä Europä posuere Greci, quibus, Pythium Apollinem consulentibus ubi conderent urbem, redditum oraculum est, quaererent sedem caecorum terris adversam. Ea ambage Chalcedonii monstrabantur, quod priores illuc advecti, praevisã locorum utilitate pejora legissent. Tacit. Annal. xii. 62. * Strabo, l. x. p. 492. Most of the antlers are now broke off; or, to speak

CHAP. golden was expressive of the riches which every wind

XVII.

wafted from the most distant countries into the secure
and capacious port of Constantinople. The river
Lycus, formed by the conflux of two little streams,
pours into the harbour a perpetual supply of fresh
water, which serves to cleanse the bottom, and to
invite the periodical shoals of fish to seek their retreat
in that convenient recess. As the vicissitudes of
tides are scarcely felt in those seas, the constant depth
of the harbour allows goods to be landed on the quays
without the assistance of boats; and it has been ob-
served, that in many places the largest vessels may
rest their prows against the houses, while their sterns
are floating in the water. From the mouth of the
Lycus to that of the harbour, this arm of the Bos-
phorus is more than seven miles in length. The
entrance is about five hundred yards broad, and a
strong chain could be occasionally drawn across it, to
guard the port and city from the attack of an hostile
navy."
Between the Bosphorus and the Hellespont, the
shores of Europe and Asia receding on either side
enclose the sea of Marmara, which was known to the
ancients by the denomination of Propontis. The
navigation from the issue of the Bosphorus to the
entrance of the Hellespont is about one hundred and
twenty miles. Those who steer their westward course
through the middle of the Propontis may at once
descry the high lands of Thrace and Bithynia, and
neverlose sight of the lofty summit of Mount Olympus,
less figuratively, most of the recesses of the harbour are filled up. See Gill. de
Bosphoro Thracio, l. i. c. 5.
* Procopius de AEdificiis, l. i. c. 5. His description is confirmed by modern
travellers. See Thevenot, part i. l. i. c. 15. Tournefort, Lettre XII. Niebuhr
Voyage d'Arabie, p. 22.
m See Ducange, C. P. l. i. parti, c. 16, and his Observations sur Villehardouin,
p.289. The chain was drawn from the Acropolis near the modern Kiosk, to

The Propontis.

the tower of Galata; and was supported at convenient distances by large wooden piles.

covered with eternal snows." They leave on the left CHAP.

a deep gulf, at the bottom of which Nicomedia was seated, the imperial residence of Diocletian; and they pass the small islands of Cyzicus and Proconnesus before they cast anchor at Gallipoli; where the sea, which separates Asia from Europe, is again contracted into a narrow channel.

XVII.

The geographers who, with the most skilful ac- The ol. espon

curacy, have surveyed the form and extent of the Hellespont, assign about sixty miles for the winding course, and about three miles for the ordinary breadth of those celebrated straits.” But the narrowest part of the channel is found to the northward of the old Turkish castles between the cities of Cestus and Abydus. It was here that the adventurous Leander braved the passage of the flood for the possession of his mistress.” It was here likewise, in a place where the distance between the opposite banks cannot exceed five hundred paces, that Xerxes imposed a stupendous bridge of boats, for the purpose of transporting into Europe a hundred and seventy myriads of barbarians." A sea contracted within such narrow limits

* Thevenot (Voyages au Levant, part i. linei. c. 14) contracts the measure to 125 small Greek miles. Belon (Observations, l. ii. c. 1) gives a good description of the Propontis, but contents himself with the vague expression of one day and one night's sail. When Sandys (Travels, p. 21) talks of 150 furlongs in length, as well as breadth, we can only suppose some mistake of the press in the text of that judicious traveller. • See an admirable dissertation of M. d’Anville upon the Hellespont or Dardanelles, in the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, tom. xxviii. p. 318– 346. Yet even that ingenious geographer is too fond of supposing new, and perhaps imaginary measures, for the purpose of rendering ancient writers as accurate as himself. The stadia employed by Herodotus in the description of the Euxine, the Bosphorus, &c. (l. iv. c. 85) must undoubtedly be all of the same species; but it seems impossible to reconcile them either with truth or with each other. P The oblique distance between Sestus and Abydus was thirty stadia. The improbable tale of Hero and Leander is exposed by M. Mahudel, but is defended on the authority of poets and medals by M. de la Nauze. See the Academie des Inscriptions, tom. vii. Hist, p. 74. Mem. p. 240. a See the seventh book of Herodotus, who has erected an elegant trophy to his own fame and to that of his country. The review appears to have been made with tolerable accuracy; but the vanity, first of the Persians, and afterwards of

CHAP. may seem but ill to deserve the singular epithet of

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broad, which Homer, as well as Orpheus, has frequently bestowed on the Hellespont. But our ideas of greatness are of a relative nature: the traveller, and especially the poet, who sailed along the Hellespont, who pursued the windings of the stream, and contemplated the rural scenery, which appeared on every side to terminate the prospect, insensibly lost the remembrance of the sea; and his fancy painted those celebrated straits, with all the attributes of a mighty river flowing with a swift current, in the midst of a woody and inland country, and at length, through a wide mouth, discharging itself into the AEgean or Archipelago. Ancient Troy,” seated on an eminence at the foot of Mount Ida, overlooked the mouth of the Hellespont, which scarcely received an accession of waters from the tribute of those immortal rivulets the Simois and Scamander. The Grecian camp had stretched twelve miles along the shore from the Sigaean to the Rhaetean promontory; and the flanks of the army were guarded by the bravest chiefs who fought under the banners of Agamemnon. The first of those promontories was occupied by Achilles with his invincible Myrmidons, and the dauntless Ajax pitched his tents on the other. After Ajax had fallen a sacrifice to his disappointed pride, and to the ingratitude of the Greeks, his sepulchre was erected on the ground where he had defended the navy against the rage of

the Greeks, was interested to magnify the armament and the victory. I should much doubt whether the invaders have ever outnumbered the men of any country which they attacked. * See Wood's Observations on Homer, p. 320. I have, with pleasure, selected this remark from an author who in general seems to have disappointed the expectation of the public as a critic, and still more as a traveller. He had visited the banks of the Hellespont; he had read Strabo; he ought to have consulted the Roman itineraries: how was it possible for him to confound Ilium and Alexandria Troas (Observations, p. 340, 341), two cities which were sixteen miles distant from each other ? * Demetrius of Scepsis wrote sixty books on thirty lines of Homer's catalogue. The XIIIth book of Strabo is sufficient for our curiosity.

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