donius, which divides the plain and the city of Nisibis, forms, like the Nile," an inundation over the adjacent country. By the labour of the Persians, the course of the river was stopped below the town, and the waters were confined on every side by solid mounds of earth. On this artificial lake, a fleet of armed vessels filled with soldiers, and with engines which discharged stones of five hundred pounds weight, advanced in order of battle, and engaged, almost upon a level, the troops which defended the ramparts. The irresistible force of the waters was alternately fatal to the contending parties, till at length a portion of the walls, unable to sustain the accumulated pressure, gave way at once, and exposed an ample breach of one hundred and fifty feet. The Persians were instantly driven to the assault, and the fate of Nisibis depended on the event of the day. The heavy-armed cavalry, who led the van of a deep column, were embarrassed in the mud, and great numbers were drowned in the unseen holes which had been filled by the rushing waters. The elephants, made furious by their wounds, increased the disorder, and trampled down thousands of the Persian archers. The Great King, who, from an exalted throne, beheld the misfortunes of his arms, sounded, with reluctant indignation, the signal of the retreat, and suspended for some hours the prosecution of the attack. But the vigilant citizens improved the opportunity of the night; and the return of day discovered a new wall of six feet in height, rising every moment to fill up the interval of the breach. Notwithstanding the disappointment of his hopes, and the loss of more than twenty thousand men, Sapor still pressed the reduction of Nisibis with an obstinate firmness, which could go;


* Julian. Orat. i. p. 27. Though Niebuhr (tom. ii. p. 307) allows a very considerable swell to the Mygdonius, over which he saw a bridge of twelve arches: it is difficult, however, to understand this parallel of a trifling rivulet

with a mighty river. There are many circumstances obscure, and almost unintelligible, in the description of these stupendous water-works.

have yielded only to the necessity of defending the
eastern provinces of Persia against a formidable in-
vasion of the Massagetae." Alarmed by this intel-
ligence, he hastily relinquished the siege, and marched
with rapid diligence from the banks of the Tigris to
those of the Oxus. The danger and difficulties of the
Scythian war engaged him soon afterwards to con-
clude, or at least to observe, a truce with the Roman
emperor, which was equally grateful to both princes;
as Constantius himself, after the deaths of his two
brothers, was involved, by the revolutions of the
West, in a civil contest, which required and seemed
to exceed the most vigorous exertion of his undivided
After the partition of the empire, three years had

Civil war and death

scarcely elapsed before the sons of Constantine seemed of con.

impatient to convince mankind that they were in

A. D. 340,

capable of contenting themselves with the dominions *

which they were unqualified to govern. The eldest of those princes soon complained, that he was defrauded of his just proportion of the spoils of their murdered kinsmen; and though he might yield to the superior guilt and merit of Constantius, he exacted from Constans the cession of the African provinces, as an equivalent for the rich countries of Macedonia and Greece, which his brother had acquired by the death of Dalmatius. The want of sincerity, which Constantine experienced in a tedious and fruitless negotiation, exasperated the fierceness of his temper; and he eagerly listened to those favourites, who suggested to him that his honour, as well as his interest, was concerned in the prosecution of the quarrel. At the head of a tumultuary band, suited

* We are obliged to Zonaras (tom. ii. l. xiii. p. 11) for this invasion of the Massagetae, which is perfectly consistent with the general series of events, to which we are darkly led by the broken history of Ammianus.



Murder of

A. D. 350,

for rapine rather than for conquest, he suddenly broke
into the dominions of Constans, by the way of the
Julian Alps, and the country round Aquileia felt the
first effects of his resentment. The measures of
Constans, who then resided in Dacia, were directed
with more prudence and ability. On the news of
his brother’s invasion, he detached a select and disci-
plined body of his Illyrian troops, proposing to follow
them in person, with the remainder of his forces. But
the conduct of his lieutenants soon terminated the
unnatural contest. By the artful appearances of
flight, Constantine was betrayed into an ambuscade,
which had been concealed in a wood, where the rash
youth, with a few attendants, was surprised, sur-
rounded, and slain. His body, after it had been
found in the obscure stream of the Alsa, obtained the
honours of an imperial sepulchre; but his provinces
transferred their allegiance to the conqueror, who, re-
fusing to admit his elder brother Constantius to any
share in these new acquisitions, maintained the un-
disputed possession of more than two-thirds of the
Roman empire.”
The fate of Constans himself was delayed about ten
years longer, and the revenge of his brother's death
was reserved for the more ignoble hand of a domestic
traitor. The pernicious tendency of the system in-
troduced by Constantine was displayed in the feeble
administration of his sons; who, by their vices and
weakness, soon lost the esteem and affections of their

people. The pride assumed by Constans, from the

unmerited success of his arms, was rendered more

contemptible by his want of abilities and application. His fond partiality towards some German captives,

P The causes and the events of this civil war are related with much perplexity and contradiction. I have chiefly followed Zonaras and the younger Victor. The monody (ad calcem Eutrop. edit. Havercamp.) pronounced on the death of Constantine might have been very instructive; but prudence and false taste engaged the orator to involve himself in vague declamation.

distinguished only by the charms of youth, was an CHAP.

object of scandal to the people;" and Magnentius, an ambitious soldier, who was himself of barbarian extraction, was encouraged by the public discontent to assert the honour of the Roman name." The chosen bands of Jovians and Herculians, who acknowledged Magnentius as their leader, maintained the most respectable and important station in the imperial camp. The friendship of Marcellinus, count of the sacred largesses, supplied with a liberal hand the means of seduction. The soldiers were convinced by the most specious arguments, that the republic summoned them to break the bonds of hereditary servitude; and, by the choice of an active and vigilant prince, to reward the same virtues which had raised the ancestors of the degenerate Constans from a private condition to the throne of the world. As soon as the conspiracy was ripe for execution, Marcellinus, under the pretence of celebrating his son's birthday, gave a splendid entertainment to the illustrious and honourable persons of the court of Gaul, which then resided in the city of Autun. The intemperance of the feast was artfully protracted till a very late hour of the night; and the unsuspecting guests were tempted to indulge themselves in a dangerous and guilty freedom of conversation. On a sudden the doors were thrown open, and Magnentius, who had retired for a few moments, returned into the apartment, invested with the diadem

* Quarum (gentium) obsides pretio quaesitos pueros venustiores, quod cultius habuerat, libidine hujusmodi arsisse pro certo habetur. Had not the depraved taste of Constans been publicly avowed, the elder Victor, who held a considerable office in his brother's reign, would not have asserted it in such positive terms.

* Julian. Orat. i. and ii. Zosim. l. ii. p. 134, Victor in Epitome. There is reason to believe that Magnentius was born in one of those barbarian colonies which Constantius Chlorus had established in Gaul (see this History, vol. i. p. 469). His behaviour may remind us of the patriot earl of Leicester, the famous Simon de Montfort, who could persuade the good people of England, that he, a Frenchman by birth, had taken arms to deliver them from foreign favourites. w


and purple. The conspirators instantly saluted him with the titles of Augustus and emperor. The surprise, the terror, the intoxication, the ambitious hopes, and the mutual ignorance of the rest of the assembly, prompted them to join their voices to the general acclamation. The guards hastened to take the oath of fidelity; the gates of the town were shut; and before the dawn of day, Magnentius became master of the troops and treasure of the palace and city of Autun. By his secrecy and diligence he entertained some hopes of surprising the person of Constans, who was pursuing in the adjacent forest his favourite amusement of hunting, or perhaps some pleasures of a more private and criminal nature. The rapid progress of fame allowed him, however, an instant for flight, though the desertion of his soldiers and subjects deprived him of the power of resistance. Before he could reach a sea-port in Spain, where he intended to embark, he was overtaken near Helena," at the foot of the Pyrenees, by a party of light cavalry, whose chief, regardless of the sanctity of a temple, executed his commission by the murder of the son of Constantine.' As soon as the death of Constans had decided this easy but important revolution, the example of the court of Autun was imitated by the provinces of the West. The authority of Magnentius was acknowledged through the whole extent of the two great praefectures of Gaul and Italy; and the usurper prepared, by every act of oppression, to collect a treasure, which might discharge the obligation of an immense * This ancient city had once flourished under the name of Illiberis (Pomponius Mela, ii. 5). The munificence of Constantine gave it new splendour, and his mother's name. Helena (it is still called Elne) became the seat of a bishop, who long afterwards transferred his residence to Perpignan, the capital of modern Rousillon. See D'Anville Notice de l'Ancienne Gaule, p. 380. Longuerue Description de la France, p. 223, and the Marca Hispanica, l. i. c. 2.


tius and
assume the
A.D. 350,
March 1.

* Zosimus, l. ii. p. 119, 120. Zonaras, tom. ii. l. xiii. p. 13, and the Abbreviators.

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