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still enjoyed the comfort of making frequent and chAP. devout visits to the Holy City, and the hope of being * one day restored to those seats which both nature and religion taught them to love as well as to revere. But at length, under the reign of Hadrian, the desperate fanaticism of the Jews filled up the measure of their calamities; and the Romans, exasperated by their repeated rebellions, exercised the rights of victory with unusual rigour. The emperor founded, under the name of Ælia Capitolina, a new city on Mount Sion," to which he gave the privileges of a colony; and denouncing the severest penalties against any of the Jewish people who should dare to approach its precincts, he fixed a vigilant garrison of a Roman cohort to enforce the execution of his orders. The Nazarenes had only one way left to escape the common proscription, and the force of truth was on this occasion assisted by the influence of temporal advantages. They elected Marcus for their bishop, a prelate of the race of the Gentiles, and most probably a native either of Italy or of some of the Latin provinces. At his persuasion, the most considerable part of the congregation renounced the Mosaic law, in the practice of which they had persevered above a century. By this sacrifice of their habits and prejudices, they purchased a free admission into the colony of Hadrian, and more firmly cemented their union with the Catholic church." When the name and honours of the church of The Jerusalem had been restored to Mount Sion, the *

Avignon; and the patriarchs of Alexandria have long since transferred their
episcopal seat to Cairo.
* Dion Cassius, l. lxix. The exile of the Jewish nation from Jerusalem is
attested by Aristo of Pella (apud. Euseb. l. iv. c. 6), and is mentioned by several
ecclesiastical writers; though some of them too hastily extend this interdiction
to the whole country of Palestine.
* Eusebius, l. iv. c. 6. Sulpicius Severus, ii. 31. By comparing their un-
satisfactory accounts, Mosheim (p. 327, &c.) has drawn out a very distinct
representation of the circumstances and motives of this revolution.

CHAP. crimes of heresy and schism were imputed to the XV.

obscure remnant of the Nazarenes, which refused to accompany their Latin bishop. They still preserved their former habitation of Pella, spread themselves into the villages adjacent to Damascus, and formed an inconsiderable church in the city of Beroea, or, as it is now called, of Aleppo, in Syria." The name of Nazarenes was deemed too honourable for those Christian Jews, and they soon received from the Supposed poverty of their understanding, as well as of their condition, the contemptuous epithet of Ebiomites." In a few years after the return of the church of Jerusalem, it became a matter of doubt and controversy, whether a man who sincerely acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah, but who still continued to observe the law of Moses, could possibly hope for salvation. The humane temper of Justin Martyr inclined him to answer this question in the affirmative; and though he expressed himself with the most guarded diffidence, he ventured to determine in favour of such an imperfect Christian, if he were content to practise the Mosaic ceremonies, without pretending to assert their general use or necessity. But when Justin was pressed to declare the sentiment of the church, he confessed that there were very many among the orthodox Christians, who not only excluded their Judaising brethren from the hope of salvation, but who

declined any intercourse with them in the common

* Le Clerc (Hist. Ecclesiast. p. 477. 535) seems to have collected from Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, and other writers, all the principal circumstances that relate to the Nazarenes or Ebionites. The nature of their opinions soon divided them into a stricter and a milder sect; and there is some reason to conjecture, that the family of Jesus Christ remained members, at least, of the latter and more moderate party.

* Some writers have been pleased to create an Ebion, the imaginary author of their sect and name. But we can more safely rely on the learned Eusebius than on the vehement Tertullian, or the credulous Epiphanius. According to Le Clerc, the Hebrew word Eljonim may be translated into Latin by that of Pauperes. See Hist. Ecclesiast. p. 477.

offices of friendship, hospitality, and social life.” The chap.

more rigorous opinion prevailed, as it was natural to expect, over the milder; and an eternal bar of separation was fixed between the disciples of Moses and those of Christ. The unfortunate Ebionites, rejected from one religion as apostates, and from the other as heretics, found themselves compelled to assume a more decided character; and although some traces of that obsolete sect may be discovered as late as the fourth century, they insensibly melted away either into the church or the synagogue."

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While the orthodox church preserved a just me- The

dium between excessive veneration and improper contempt for the law of Moses, the various heretics deviated into equal but opposite extremes of error and extravagance. From the acknowledged truth of the Jewish religion, the Ebionites had concluded that it could never be abolished. From its supposed imperfections the Gnostics as hastily inferred that it never was instituted by the wisdom of the Deity. There are some objections against the authority of Moses and the prophets, which too readily present themselves to the sceptical mind; though they can only be derived from our ignorance of remote antiquity, and from our incapacity to form an adequate judg

* See the very curious Dialogue of Justin Martyr with the Jew Tryphon. The conference between them was held at Ephesus, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, and about twenty years after the return of the church of Pella to Jerusalem. For this date consult the accurate note of Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, tom. ii. p. 511.

y Of all the systems of Christianity, that of Abyssinia is the only one which still adheres to the Mosaic rites (Geddes's Church History of AEthiopia, and Dissertations de le Grand sur la Relation du P. Lobo). The eunuch of the queen Candace might suggest some suspicions; but as we are assured (Socrates, i. 19. Sozomen. ii. 24. Ludolphus, p. 281), that the AEthiopians were not converted till the fourth century; it is more reasonable to believe, that they respected the sabbath, and distinguished the forbidden meats, in imitation of the Jews, who, in a very early period, were seated on both sides of the Red Sea. Circumcision had been practised by the most ancient AEthiopians, from motives of health and cleanliness, which seem to be explained in the Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, tom. ii. p. 117.

Gnostics.

coor ment of the divine economy. These objections were

eagerly embraced and as petulantly urged by the vain science of the Gnostics.” As those heretics were, for the most part, averse to the pleasures of sense, they morosely arraigned the polygamy of the patriarchs,

the gallantries of David, and the seraglio of Solomon.

The conquest of the land of Canaan, and the ex-
tirpation of the unsuspecting natives, they were at a
loss how to reconcile with the common notions of
humanity and justice. But when they recollected the
sanguinary list of murders, of executions, and of
massacres, which stain almost every page of the Jewish
annals, they acknowledged that the barbarians of
Palestine had exercised as much compassion towards
their idolatrous enemies, as they had ever shown to
their friends or countrymen." Passing from the sec-
taries of the law to the law itself, they asserted that
it was impossible that a religion which consisted only
of bloody sacrifices and trifling ceremonies, and whose
rewards as well as punishments were all of a carnal
and temporal nature, could inspire the love of virtue,
or restrain the impetuosity of passion. The Mosaic
account of the creation and fall of man was treated
with profane derision by the Gnostics, who would not
listen with patience to the repose of the Deity after
six days labour, to the rib of Adam, the garden of
Eden, the trees of life and of knowledge, the speak-
ing serpent, the forbidden fruit, and the condemna-
tion pronounced against human kind for the venial
offence of their first progenitors." The God of Israel
was impiously represented by the Gnostics, as a being
* Beausobre, Histoire du Manicheisme, l. i. c. 3. has stated their objections,
particularly those of Faustus, the adversary of Augustin, with the most learned
impartiality.
* Apud ipsos fides obstinata, misericordia in promptă : adversus omnes alios
hostile odium. Tacit. Hist. v. 4. Surely Tacitus had seen the Jews with too
favourable an eye. The perusal of Josephus must have destroyed the antithesis.

* Dr. Burnet (Archaeologia, l. ii. c. 7) has discussed the first chapters of Genesis with too much wit and freedom.

liable to passion and to error, capricious in his favour, co.

implacable in his resentment, meanly jealous of his superstitious worship, and confining his partial providence to a single people, and to this transitory life. In such a character they could discover none of the features of the wise and omnipotent father of the universe." They allowed that the religion of the Jews was somewhat less criminal than the idolatry of the Gentiles; but it was their fundamental doctrine, that the Christ whom they adored as the first and brightest emanation of the Deity, appeared upon earth to rescue mankind from their various errors, and to reveal a new system of truth and perfection. The most learned of the fathers, by a very singular condescension, have imprudently admitted the sophistry of the Gnostics. Acknowledging that the literal sense is repugnant to every principle of faith as well as reason, they deem themselves secure and invulnerable behind the ample veil of allegory, which they carefully spread over every tender part of the Mosaic dispensation."

It has been remarked with more ingenuity than Their sects,

truth, that the virgin purity of the church was never

jan or Hadrian, about one hundred years after the death of Christ." We may observe with much more propriety, that, during that period, the disciples of the Messiah were indulged in a freer latitude both of faith and practice than has ever been allowed in succeeding ages. As the terms of communion were in

• The milder Gnostics considered Jehovah, the Creator, as a Being of a mixed nature between God and the Daemon. Others confounded him with the evil principle. Consult the second century of the general history of Mosheim, which gives a very distinct, though concise, account of their strange opinions on this subject.

* See Beausobre, Hist. du Manicheisme, l. i. c. 4. Origen and St. Augustin were among the Allegorists.

* Hegesippus, ap. Euseb. l. iii. 32. iv. 22. Clemens Alexandrin. Stromat. vii. 17.

progress, and influ

violated by schism or heresy before the reign of Tra- *

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