The Exercises may be used, at the discretion of the teacher, quite independently of the sections to which they are referred.

(1) Many of them may be used as practice in picking out parts of speech.

(2) Adverbial Phrases or Clauses may be substituted for Adverbs, and vice versâ, especially in distinguishing the Adverbial use of the Infinitive from its other uses.

(3) In working the Compound Sentence, a particular clause may be given to be analysed in detail as a Simple Sentence. This is most necessary in the case of Adjectival Clauses, where a thorough knowledge of the construction of the Relative is essential.

(4) A Simple Sentence may be given, and the learner required to qualify it by the addition of Dependent Clauses of one kind or another.


1. Grammar deals with words and sentences.

2. The Parts of Speech, or Kinds of Words, are eight:

(1) The Substantive is the name of a Person or 4 Thing; as :

Cresar; man; horse; sword; pleasure. (2) An Adjective qualifies a Substantive, and distinguishes a thing from other things which have the same name; as :

Old man; sharp sword; great pleasure ; young man; blunt sword; little pleasure. (3) A Pronoun stands for a Substantive; as:

He cried; we laughed. (4) A Verb expresses being, doing, or being done to; as:

I am; you are running; he is beaten. (5) An Adverb shows how, when, or where, and qualifies a Verb, Adjective, or another Adverb; as :

Run fast; hardly safe ; very badly. (6) A Preposition is placed before a Substantive, to show what that Substantive has to do with some other word or words in the sentence; as :

He stood in the doorway; he knocked at the door.


(7) A Conjunctionjoinswords, phrases,or clauses; as: Cat and dog; to run one mile or to walk ten.

He never said a foolish thing,

Nor ever did a wise one. (8) An Interjection is an exclamation of joy, sorrow, astonishment, or some other feeling; as:

Hurrah! alas! oh! 3. Besides these Parts of Speech there are in English two Articles :

The Definite Article, the.

The Indefinite Article, a, an (before a vowel or silent h):

A book; a horse. But an ant; an hour. 4. A Sentence or Clause is a complete thought put into words; that is, a spoken thought.

For a complete thought two things are necessary : The Subject: that which is spoken about,

The Predicate: that which is said about the Subject.

5. A Phrase is a group of two or more words which makes sense, but is not a sentence.


6. Names of Things may be either:

Proper Names,

or Common Names. Proper Names are names of particular Persons, Animals, Places, or Things; as:

Nanoleon; Toby; Paris; Excalibur.

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