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24. While our afiairs were thus prospering, Illyricum was put in a state of twofold security, since the emperor, in endeavouring by two means to accomplish this object, succeeded in both. He brought back and established in their ancient homes the people who had been banished, whom, although they were objects of suspicion from their natural fickleness, he believed would go on more moderately than of old. And to crown this kindness, he set over them as a king, not one of low birth, but the very man whom they themselves had formerly chosen, as eminent for all the virtues of mind and body.
25. After such a wise action, Constantius, being now raised above all fear, and having received from the unanimous consent of his soldiers the title of Sarmaticus, from the name of the nation which he had subdued; and "being now about to leave the army, summoned all his cohorts and centuries and maniples, and mounting the tribune, surrounded by the standards and eagles, and by a great number of soldiers of all ranks, he addressed the troops in these words, choosing his topics as usual so as to gain the favour of all.
26. “The recollection of our glorious exploits, the dearest of all feelings to brave men, encourages me to repeat, though with great moderation, what, in our heavengranted victories, and before battle, and in the very heat of the strife, we, the most faithful champions of the Roman state, have conducted to a deservedly prosperous issue. For what ca.n be so honourable or so justly worthy to be handed down to the recollection of posterity as the exultation of the soldier in his brave deeds, and of the general in his wise plans? i
27. “The rage of our enemies, in their arrogant pride thinking to profit by our absence, while we were protecting Italy and Gaul, was overrunning Illyricum, and with continual sallies they were ravaging "even the districts beyond our frontiers; crossing the rivers, sometimes in boats made of hollow trees, sometimes on foot ; not relying on combats, nor on their arms and strength, but being accustomed to secret forays, and having been from the very earliest era of their nation an object of fear to our ancestors, from their cunning and the variety of their manoeuvres, which we indeed, being at a great distance,
bore as long as we could, thinking that the vigour of our generals would be able to protect us from even slight m-W17‘ . . .
28. “ But when their licentiousness led them on to bolder attempts, and to inflict great and frequent injury on our provinces, we, having first fortified the passes of the Tyrol, and having secured the safety of the Gauls by watchful care, leaving no danger behind us, have marched into Pannonia, in order, with the favour of the everlasting deity, to strengthen our tottering interests in that country. And after everything was prepared, we set forth, as you know, at the end of the spring, and undertook a great enterprise ; first of all taking care that the countless darts of the enemy should not prevent us from making a bridge. And when, with no great trouble, this had been accomplished, after we had set our foot upon the enemy's territories, we defeated, with very little loss to ourselves, the Sannatians, who with obstinate courage set themselves to resist us to the death. And we also crushed the Quadi, who were bringing reinforcements to the Sarmatians, and who with similar courage attacked our noble legions.
29. “ These tribes, after heavy losses sustained in their attacks, and their stubborn and toilsome resistance, have at length learnt the power of our valour, and throwing away their arms, have allowed their hands, prepared for fighting, to be bound behind their backs ; and seeing that their only hope of safety is in prayer, have fallen at the feet of your merciful emperor, whose wars they found are usually successful. Having got rid of these enemies,
' we with equal courage defeated the Limigantes, and after
we had put numbers of them to the word, the rest found their only means of escaping danger lay in fleeing to their hiding-places in the marshes.
80. “ And when these things were successfully terminated, it seemed to be a seasonable opportunity for mercy. So we compelled the Limigantes to remove to very distant lands, that they might not be able any more to move to our injury ; and we spared the greatest part of them. And we made Zizais king over the free-born portion of them, sure that he would be faithful to us, and thinking it more honour to create a king for the barbarians than to take one from them, the dignity being increased by
this honourable consideration, that the ruler whom we grins gave them had before been elected and accepted by em.
31. “So we and the republic have in one campaign obtained a fourfold reward : first, vengence on our guilty assailants; next, abundance of captive slaves from the enemy, for valour is entitled to those rewards which it has earned with its toil and prowess.
32. “ Thirdly, we have ample resources and great treasures of wealth; our labour and courage having preserved the patrimony of each of us undiminished. This, in the mind of a good sovereign, is the best fruit of prosperity.
33. “Lastly, I myself have the well-won spoil of a surname derived from the enemy—the title of Sarmaticus —which you unanimously have (if I may say so without arrogance) deservedly conferred on me.”
34. After he had made an end of speaking, the whole assembly, with more alacrity than usual, since its hope of booty and gain was increased, rose up with joyful voices in praise of the emperor; and, as usual, calling God to witness that Constantius was invincible, returned with joy to their tents. And the emperor was conducted back to his palace, and having rested two days, re-entered Sirmium with a triumphal procession; and the troops returned to their appointed stations.
§1. ABOUT this time Prosper and Spectatus and Eus
‘tathius, who, as has been mentioned above, had been sent
as ambassadors to the Persians, found the Persian king at C-tesiphon, on his return from his campaign, and they delivered the emperor’s letters and presents, and requested peace while affairs were still in their existing state. And
i mindful of what had been enjoined them, they never
forgot the interests nor the dignity of the Roman empire, maintaining that the peace ought to be made on the condition that no alteration should be made in the state of
Armenia or Mesopotamia. 2. And having remained for some time, when they saw
A.D.359.] MISSION OF PROCOPIUS. 159
that the king was obstinate, and resolute not to admit of peace unless the absolute dominion of those regions was assigned to him, they returned without having completed their business. 3. After which, Lucillianus, a count, and Procopius, at that time secretary, were sent to obtain the same conditions, with equal powers. Procopius being the same man who afterwards, under the pressure of violent necessity, committed himself to a revolutionary movement.
Book XVIII. . . . .
/ ARGUMENT, / / >
I. The Caesar Julian consults the welfare of the Gauls, and provides for the general observance of justice.—II. He repairs the walls of the castles on the Rhine which he had recovered; crosses the Rhine, and having conquered those of the Alemanni who remained hostile, he compels their kings to sue for peace, and to restore their prisoners.-III. Why Barbatio, the commander of the infantry, and his wife, were beheaded by command of Constantius. -IV. Sapor, king of Persia, prepares to attack the Romans with all his power.-W. Antoninus, the protector, deserts to Sapor, with all his men; and increases his eagerness to engage in war with the Romans.-VI. Ursicinus, the commander of the legions, being summoned from the East, when he had reached Thrace was sent back to Mesopotamia, and having arrived there he hears from Marcellinus of Sapor's approach.–VII. Sapor, with the kings of the Chionitae and Albani, invades Mesopotamia—The Romans of their own accord lay waste their lands with fire; compelled the countrymen to come into the towns, and fortify the western bank of the Euphrates with castles and garrisons.—VIII. Seven hundred Illyrian cavalry are surprised by the Persians, and put to flight— Ursicinus escapes in one direction, and Marcellinus in another.— IX. A description of Amida; and how many legions and squadrons were there in garrison.-X. Sapor receives the surrender of two Roman fortresses.
§ 1. THESE events took place in the different parts of the world in one and the same year. But while the affairs in Gaul were in a better state; and while titles of consul
were ennobling the brothers Eusebius and Hypatius, Julian, illustrious for his uninterrupted successes, now in his winter quarters, being relieved for a while from his warlike anxieties, was devoting equal care to many points connected with the welfare of the provinces. Taking anxious care that no one should be oppressed by the burden of taxation ; that the power of the oflicers should not be stretched into extortion; that those who increase their property by the public distresses, should have no sanction, and that no judge should violate justice with impunity.
2. And he found it easy to correct what was wrong on this head, because he himself decided all causes in
' which the persons concerned were of any great importance;
and showed himself a most impartial discerner of right and wrong.
3. And although there are many acts of his in deciding these disputes worthy of praise, it will be sufiicient to mention one, on the model of which all his other Words and actions were framed. .
4. Numerius, a native of Narbonne, had a little time before been accused before the governor as a thief, and Julian, by an unusual exercise of the censor’s power, heard his cause in public; admitting into the court all who sought entrance. And when N umerius denied all that was charged against him, and could not be convicted on any
point, Delphidius the orator, who was assailing him with
great bitterness, being enraged at the failure of his charges, exclaimed, “But, great Caesar, will any one ever be found guilty if it be enough to deny the charge?” To whom Julian, with seasonable wisdom, replied, “ Can any one be judged innocent if it be enough to make a charge?” And he did many similar actions in his civil capacity.
§ 1. Bur when he was about to set out on an important expedition against some tribes of the Allemanni whom he considered hostile, and likely to proceed to acts of atrocious daring if they were not defeated in a way to be an example to the rest, he hesitated in great anxiety, since a report of his intentions had gone before him, what force he could