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raise, in imitation of the lascivious manners of Campania, or
§ 1. HIslicentiousness having now become more unbounded,
have often been forbidden.
4. In addition to these things a certain worthless woman inflamed his purpose of inflicting misery; for she, having obtained admission to the palace, as she had requested, gave
him information that a plot was secretly laid against him by a few soldiers of the lowest rank. And Constantina, in her exultation, thinking that her husband’s safety was now fully secured, rewarded and placed this woman, in a carriage, and in this way sent her out into the public
street through the great gate of the palace, in order, by such
a temptation, to allure others also to give similar or more important information.
5. After these events, Gallus being about to set out for Hierapolis, in order, as far as appearance went, to take
part in the expedition, the common people of Antioch '
entreated him in a suppliant manner to remove their fear of a famine which for many reasons (some of them dificult to explain) it was believed was impending: Gallus, however, did not, as is the custom of princes whose power, by the great extent of country over which it is difl'used, is able continually to remedy local distresses, order any distribution of food to be made, or any supplies to be brought from the neighbouring countries; but he pointed out to them a man of consular rank, named Theophilus, the governor of Syria, who happened to be standing by, replying to the repeated appeals of the multitude, who were trembling with apprehensions of the last extremities, that no one could possibly want food if the governor were not willing that they should be in want of it.
6. These words increased the audacity of the lower classes, and when the scarcity of provisions became more severe, urged by hunger and frenzy, they set fire to and burnt down the splendid house of a man of the name of Eubulus, a man of great reputation among his fellowcitizens; and they attacked the governor himself with blows and kicks as one especially made over to them by the judgment of the emperor, kicking him till he was half dead, and then tearing him to pieces in a miserable manner. And after his wretched death every one saw in the destruction of this single individual a type of the danger to which he was himself exposed, and, taught by this recent example, feared a similar fate.
7. About the same time Serenianus, who had previously been duke ‘ of Phoenicia, to whose inactivity it was owing,
1 The Latin is Dux. It is about this period that the title Duke and K cunt, which we have alreadyhad, arose, indicating however at first
A.D. 353.] CONSTANTIUS SUMMONS GALLUS. 23
as we have already related, that Celse in Phoenicia was laid waste, was deservedly and legally accused of treason, and no one saw how he could possibly be acquitted. He was also manifestly proved to have sent an intimate friend with a cap (with which he used to cover his own head) which had been enchanted by forbidden acts to the temple of prophecy, on purpose to ask expressly whether, according to his wish, a firm enjoyment of the whole empire was portended for him. 8. And in these days a twofold misfortune occurred: first, that a heavy penalty had fallen upon Theophilus who was innocent; and, secondly, that Serenianus who deserved universal execration, was acquitted without the general feeling being able to offer any effectual remonstrance. 9. Constantius then hearing from time to time of these transactions, and having been further informed of some particular occurrences by Thalassius, who however had now died by the ordinary course of nature, wrote courteous letters to the Caesar, but at the same time gradually withdrew from him his support, pretending to be uneasy, least as the leisure of soldiers is usually a disorderly time, the troops might be conspiring to his injury: and he desired him to content himself with the schools of the Palatine,” and with those of the Protectors, with the Scutarii, and Gentiles. And he ordered Domitianus, who had formerly been the Superintendent of the Treasury, but who was now promoted to be a prefect, as soon as he arrived in Syria, to address Gallus in persuasive and respectful language, exhorting him to repair with all speed to Italy, to which province the emperor had repeatedly summoned him.
not territorial possessions, but military commands; and it is worth
10. And when, with this object, Domitianus had reached Antioch, having travelled express, he passed by the gates of the palace, in contempt of the Caesar, whom. however, he ought to have visited, and proceeded to the general’s camp with ostentatious pomp, and there pretended to be sick; he neither visited the palace, nor ever appeared in public, but keeping himself private, he devised many things
‘to bring about the destruction of the Caesar, adding many
superfluous circumstances to the relations which he was
-continually sending to the, emperor.
11. At last. being expressly invited by the Caesar, and being admitted into the prince’s council-chamber, without making the slightest preface he began in this inconsiderate and light-minded manner: “ Depart,” said he, “ as you have been commanded, O Caesar, and know this, that if you make any delay I shall at once order all the provisions allotted for the support of yourself and your court to be
carried away.” And then, having said nothing more than _
these insolent words, he departed with every appearance of rage; and would never afterwards come into his sight though frequently sent for.
12. The Caesar being indignant at this, as thinking he had been unworthily and unjustly treated, ordered his faithful protectors to take the prefect into custody; and when this became known, Montius, who at that time was quaastor, a man of deep craft indeed, but still inclined to moderate measures,‘ taking counsel for the common good, sent for the principal members of the Palatine schools and addressed them in pacific words, pointing out that it was neither proper nor expedient that such things should be done; and adding also in a reproving tone of voice, that if such conduct as this were approved of, then, after throwing down the statues of Constantius the prefect would begin to think how he might also with the greater security take his life also.
13. When this was known Gallus, like a serpent attacked with stones or darts, being now reduced to the extremity of despair, and eager to insure his safety by any possible
1 Gibbon here proposes for lenitatem to read levitatem, fickleness; himself describing Montius as “a statesman whose art and experience were frequently betrayed by the levity of his disposition."—Oap. xix., p. 298. vol. iii., Bohn’s edition.
A.1, 353.] RESISTANCE OF GA 1.1.US. 25
means, ordered all his troops to be collected in arms, and