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of all danger; and thus became the most ferocious of all nations. Of the Cercetae, who lie next to them, nothing i known worth s eaking of.

26. Behind t em lie the inhabitants of the Cimmerian Bosphorus, living in cities founded by the Milesiani, the chief of which is Panticapeaurn, which is on the Bog a river of great size, both from its natural waters and the streams which fall into it.

27. Then for a great distance the Amazons stretch as i

far as the Caspian sea; occupying the banks of the Don, which rises in Mount Caucasus, and proceeds in a winding course, separating Asia irom Europe, and falls into the swampy sea of Azov.

28. Near to this is the Rha, on the banks of which grows a vegetable of the same name, which is useful as a remedy for many diseases. '

29. Beyond the Don, taking the plain in its width, lie the Sauromatae, whose land is watered by the never-failing rivers Maraecus, Rhombites, Theophanes, and Totordanes. And there is at a vast distance another nation also known as Sauromatae, touching the shore at the point where the "river Corax falls into the sea.

30. Near to this is the sea of Azov, of great extent, from the abundant sources of which a great body of water pours through the straits of Patares, near the Black Sea; on the right are the islands Phanag01'11s and Hermonassa, which have -been settled by the industry of the Greeks.

31. Round the furthest extremity of this gulf dwell many tribes difi"ering from one another in language and habits; the Jaxamatae, the Mwotae, the Jazyges, the Roxolani, the Alani, the Melanchlaenae, the Geloni, and the Agathyrsi, whose l-and abounds in adamant.

32. And there are others beyond, who are the most remote people of the whole world. On the left side of this gulf lies the Crimea, full of Greek colonies; the people of which are quiet and steady : they practise agriculture, and live on the produce of the land.

33. From them the Tauri, though at no great distance, are separated by several kingdoms, among which are the Arinchi, a most savage tribe, the Sinchi, and who Napaai, whose cruelty, being aggravated by oontinual licence. is

the reason why the sea is called the Inhospitable, from which by the rule of contrary it gets the name of the Euxine, just as the Greeks call a fool evhtinc, and night ei,6póvn, and the furies, the Evuevièec. 34. For they propitiated the gods with human victims, sacrificing strangers to Diana, whom they call Oreiloche, and fix the heads of the slain on the walls of their temples, as perpetual monuments of their deeds. 35. In this kingdom of the Tauri lies the uninhabited island of Leuce, which is consecrated to Achilles; and if any ever visit it, as soon as they have examined the traces of antiquity, and the temple and offerings dedicated to the hero, they return the same evening to their ships, as it is said that no one can pass the night there without danger to his life. 36. There is water there, and white birds like kingfishers, the origin of which, and the battles of the Hellespont, we will discuss at a proper time. And there are some cities in this region of which the most eminent are Eupatoria, Dandaca, and Theodosia, and several others which are free from the wickedness of human sacrifices. 37. Up to this we reckon that one of the extremities of the arc extends. We will now follow, as order suggests, the rest of the curve which extends towards the north, along the left side of the Thracian Bosphorus, just reminding the reader that while the bows of all other nations bend along the whole of their material, those of the Scythians and Parthians have a straight rounded line in the centre, from which they curve their spreading horns so as to present the figure of the waning moon. 38. At the very beginning then of this district, where the Rhipaean mountains end, lie the Arimphaei, a just people known for their quiet character, whose land is watered by the rivers Chronius and Bisula; and next to them are the Massagetae, the Alani, and the Sargetae, and several other tribes of little note, of whom we know neither the names nor the customs. 39. Then, a long way off, is the bay Carcinites, and a

* The old name was "A$elvos, inhospitable; turned into effielvos, friendly to strangers—eithôms, according to etymology, would mean “of a good disposition:” ebtpóvn, “the time when people have happy thoughts;” Eöuevióes, “deities of propitious might.”

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river of the same name, and a grove of Diana, frequented by many votaries in those countries.

40. After that we come to the Dnieper (Borysthenes), which rises in the mountains of the Neuri; a river very large at its first beginning, and which increases by the influx of many other streams, till it falls into the sea with great violence; on its woody banks is the town of Borysthenes, and Cephalonesus, and some altars consecrated to Alexander the Great and Augustus Caesar.

41. Next, at a great distance, is an island inhabited by the Sindi, a tribe of low-born persons, who upon the overthrow of their lords and masters in Asia, took possession of their wives and properties. Below them is a narrow strip of coast called by the natives the Course of Achilles. having been made memorable in olden time by the exercises of the Thessalian chief, and next to that is the city of Tyros, a colony of the Phoenicians, watered by the river Dniester.

42. But in the middle of the arc which we have de

scribed as being of an extended roundness, and which takes an active traveller fifteen days to traverse, are the Europaean Alani, the Costoboci, and the countless tribes of the Scythians, who extend over territories which have no ascertained limit; a small part of whom live on grain. But the rest wander over vast deserts, knowing neither ploughtime nor seedtime ; but living in cold and frost, and feeding like great beasts. They place their relations, their homes, and their wretched furniture on waggons covered with bark, and, whenever they choose, they migrate without hindrance, driving otf these waggons wherever they like. . . 43. When one arrives at another point of the circuit -where there is a harbour, which bounds the figure of the arc at that extremity, the island Pence is conspicuous, inhabited by the Troglodytae, and Peuci, and other inferior tribes, and we come also to Histros, formerlya city of great power, and to Tomi, Apollonia, Anchialos, Odissos, and many others on the Thracian coast.

44. But the Danube, rising near Basle on the borders of the Tyrol, extending over a wider space, and receiving on his way nearly sixty navigable rivers, pours through

the Scythian territory by seven mouths into the Black Sea.

45. The first mouth (according to the Greek interpretation of the names) is at the island of Pence, which we have mentioned; the second is at Naracustoma, the third at Calonstoma, the fourth at Pseudostoma. The Boreonstoma and the Sthenostoma, are much smaller, and the seventh is large and black-looking like a hog.

46. But the whole sea, all around, is full of mists and shoals, and is "sweeter than seas in general, because by the evaporation of moisture the air is often thick and dense, and its waters are tempered by the immensity of the rivers which fall into it; and it is full of shifting shallows, because the number of the streams which surround it pour in mud and lumps of soil.

47. And it is well known that fish flock in large -shoals t.o its most remote extremities that they may spawn and rear their young more healthfully, in consequence of the salubrity of the water; while the hollow caverns, which are very numerous there, protect them from voracious mon. sters. For nothing of the kind is ever seen in this sea,

except some small dolphins, and they do no harm.

48. Now the portions of the Black Sea which are exposed to the north wind are so thoroughly frozen that, while the rivers, as it is believed, cannot continue their course beneath the ice, yet neither can the foot of beast or man proceed firmly over the treacherous and shifting ground; afault which is never found in a pure sea, but only in one of which the waters are mingled with those of rivers. We have digressed more than we had intended, -so now let us turn back to what remains to be told.

49. Another circumstance came to raise J ulian’s present joy, one which indeed had been long expected, but which had been deferred by all manner of delays. For intelligence was brought by Agilo and J ovius, who was afterwards quaestor, that the garrison of Aquileia, weary of the length of the siege, and having heard of the death of Constantius, had opened their gates and come forth, delivering up the authors of the revolt; and that, after they had been

'burnt alive, as has been related, the rest had obtained

pardon for their offences.

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§ 1. BUT Julian, elated at his prosperity, began to aspire to
greatness beyond what is granted to man: amid continual
dangers he had learnt by experience that propitious
fortune held out to him, thus peacefully governing the
Roman world, a cornucopia as it were of human blessings
and all kinds of glory and success: adding this also to his
former titles of victory, that while he alone held the reins
of empire he was neither disturbed by intestine commo-
tions, nor did any barbarians venture to cross his frontiers;
but all nations, eager at all times to find fault with what is
past, as mischievous and unjust, were with marvellous
unanimity agreed in his praises.
2. Having therefore arranged with profound delibera-
tion all the matters which were required either by the cir-
cumstances of the state or by the time, and having
encouraged the soldiers by repeated harangues and by
adequate pay to be active in accomplishing all that was to
be done, Julian, being in great favour with all men, set
out for Antioch, leaving Constantinople, which he had
greatly strengthened and enriched; for he had been born
there, and loved and protected it as his native city.
3. Then crossing the straits, and passing by Chalcedon
and Libyssa, where Hannibal the Carthaginian is buried,
he came to Nicomedia; a city of ancient renown, and so
adorned at the great expense of former emperors, that
from the multitude of its public and private buildings
good judges look on it as a quarter, as it were, of the
eternal city.
4. When Julian beheld its walls buried in miserable
ashes, he showed the anguish of his mind by silent tears,
and went slowly on towards the palace; especially lament-
ing its misfortunes, because the senators who came out to
meet him were in poor-looking condition, as well as the
people who had formerly been most prosperous; some of
them he recognized having been brought up there by the
bishop Eusebius, of whom he was a distant relation.
5. Having here made many arrangements for repairing
the damage done by an earthquake, he passed through
Nisaea to the frontier of Gallograecia, and then turning to

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