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l. The cruelty of the Caesar Gallus.—II. The incursions of the Isaurians.-III. The unsuccessful plans of the Persians.—IV. The invasion of the Saracens, and the manners of that people.— V. The punishment of the adherents of Magnentius.—VI. The vices of the senate and people of Rome.—VII. The ferocity and inhumanity of the Caesar Gallus.—VIII. A description of the provinces of the East.—IX. About the Caesar Constantius Gallus.— X. The Emperor Constantius grants the Allemanni peace at their request-XI. The Caesar Constantius Gallus is sent for by the Emperor Constantius, and beheaded.

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1. AFTER the events of an expedition full of almost insuperable difficulties, while the spirits of all parties in the state, broken by the variety of their dangers and toils, were still enfeebled; while the clang of trumpets was ringing in men's ears, and the troops were still distributed in their winter quarters, the storms of angry fortune surrounded the commonwealth with fresh dangers through the manifold and terrible atrocities of Caesar Gallus:" who, when just entering into the prime of life, having been raised with unexpected honour from the lowest depth of misery to the highest rank, exceeded all the legitimate bounds of the power conferred on him, and with preposterous violence threw everything into confusion. For by his near relationship to the royal family, and his connection with the name of Constantine, he was so inflated with pride, that if he had had more power, he would, as it seemed, have ventured to attack even the author of his prosperity. 2. His wife added fuel to his natural ferocity; she was a woman immoderately proud of her sisterly relationship to Augustus, and had been formerly given in marriage by the elder Constantine to King Hannibalianus, his brother's son. She was an incarnate fury: never weary of inflaming his savage temper, thirsting for human blood as insatiably as her husband. The pair, in process of time, becoming more skilful in the infliction of suffering, employed a gang of underhand and crafty talebearers, accustomed in their wickedness to make random additions to their discoveries, which consisted in general of such falsehoods as they themselves delighted in; and these men loaded the innocent with calumnies, charging them with aiming at kingly power, or with practising infamous acts of magic. 3. And among his less remarkable atrocities, when his power had gone beyond the bounds of moderate crimes, was conspicuous the horrible and sudden death of a certain noble citizen of Alexandria, named Clematius. His mother-in-law, having conceived a passion for him, could not prevail on him to gratify it; and in consequence, as

* Gallus and his brother Julian were the nephews of the great Constantine, sons of his brother Julius. When Constantius, who succeeded Constantine on the throne, murdered his uncles and most of his cousins, he spared these two, probably on account of their tender age. P.

Hannibalianus was another nephew of Constantine. That emperor raised his own three sons, Constantine, Constantius, and Constans, to the dignity of Caesar; and of his two favourite nephews, Dalmacius and Hannibalianus, he raised the first, by the title of Caesar, to an equality with his cousins; “in favour of the latter he invented the new and singular appellation of Fortitissimus, to which he annexed the flattering distinction of a robe of purple and gold. But of the whole series of Roman princes in any age of the empire Hannibalianus alone was distinguished by the title of king, a name which the subjects of Tiberius would have detested as the profane and cruel insult of capricious tyranny.”-Gibbon, cxviii. The editor of Bohn's edition adds in a note: “The title given to Hannibalianus did not apply to him as a Roman prince, but as king of a territory assigned to him in Asia. This territory consisted of Pontus, Cappadocia, and the lesser Armenia, the city of Caesarea being chosen for his residence.”–Gibbon, Bohn's edition, vol. ii. pp. 256, 257.

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A.D. 353.] CRUELTY OF GALLUS. 3

was reported, she, having obtained an introduction by a

secret door into the palace, won over the queen by the
present of a costly necklace, and procured a fatal warrant
to be sent to Honoratus, at that time count-governor of the
East, in compliance with which Clematius was put to
death, a man wholly innocent of any kind of wickedness,
without being permitted to say a word in his defence.
4. After this iniquitous transaction, which struck others
also with fear lest they should meet with similar treat-
ment, as if cruelty had now obtained a licence, many were
condemned on mere vague suspicion; of whom some were
put to death, others were punished by the confiscation of
their property, and driven forth as exiles from their
homes, so that having nothing left but their tears and
complaints, they were reduced to live on the contributions
of their friends; and many opulent and famous houses were
shut up, the old constitutional and just authority being
changed into a government at the will of a bloodthirsty
tyrant. -
5. Nor amid these manifold atrocities was any testimony
of an accuser, not even of a suborned one, sought for, in
order to give at least an appearance of these crimes being
committed according to law and statute, as very commonly
even the most cruel princes have done: but whatever

suited the implacable temper of Caesar was instantly accom

plished in haste, as if its accordance with human and
divine law had been well considered. -
6. After these deeds a fresh device was adopted, and a
body of obscure men, such as, by reason of the meanness
of their condition, were little likely to excite suspicion,
were sent through all the districts of Antioch, to collect
reports, and to bring news of whatever they might hear.
They, travelling about, and concealing their object, joined
clandestinely in the conversational circles of honourable
men, and also in disguise obtained entrance into the houses
of the rich. When they returned they were secretly ad-
mitted by back doors into the palace, and then reported
all that they had been able to hear or to collect; taking
care with an unanimous kind of conspiracy to invent
manythings, and to exaggerate for the worse all they really
knew; at the same time suppressing any praises of Caesar
which had come to their ears, although these were wrung

from many, against their consciences, by the dread of impending evils.

7. And it had happened sometimes that, if in his secret chamber, when no domestic servant was by, the master of the house had whispered anything into his wife's ear, the very next day, as if those renowned seers of old, Amphiaraus or Marcius, had been at hand to report it, the emperor was informed of what had been said; so that even the walls of a ma.n’s secret chamber, the only witnesses to his language, were viewed with apprehension.

8. And Caesar's fixed resolution to inquire into these and other similar occurrences was increased by the queen, who constantly stimulated his desire, and was driving on the fortunes of her husband to headlong destruction, While she ought rather, by giving him useful advice, to have led him back into the paths of truth and mercy, by feminine gentleness, as, in recounting the acts of the Gordiani, we have related to have been done by the wife of that truculent emperor Maximinus.

9. At last, by an unsurpassed and most pernicious baseness, Gallus ventured on adopting a course of fearful wickedness, which indeed Gallienus, to his own exceeding infamy, is said formerly to have tried at Rome; and, taking with him a few followers secretly armed, he used to rove in the evening through the streets and among the shops, making inquiries in the Greek language, in which he was well skilled, what were the feelings of individuals towards Caesar. And he used to do this boldly in the city, where the brillancy of the lamps at night often equalled the light of day. At last, being often recognized, and considering that if he went out in this way he should be known, he took care never to go out except openly in broad daylight, to transact whatever business which he thought of serious importance. And these things caused bitter though secret lamentation, and discontent to many.

10. But at that time Thalassius was the present prefect‘ of the palace, a man of an arrogant temper; and he, per~

' " Tl ere was among the commanders of the soldiery one prefect who was especially entitled Prsesens, or Prsesentalis, because his oflice was to be always in the court or about the person of the prince, and because the emperor's body-guard was under his particular orders] — H. Valesius.

A.D.353.] REBELLION OF THE ISAURIANS. 5

ceiving that the hasty fury of Gallus gradually increased to the danger of many of the citizens, did not mollify it by either delay or wise counsels, as men in high office have very often pacified the anger of their princes; but by untimely opposition and leproof, did often excite him the more to frenzy; often also informing Augustus of his actions, and that too with exaggeration, and taking care, I know not with what intention, that what he did should not be unknown to the emperor. And at this Caesar soon became more vehemently exasperated, and, as if raising more on high than ever the standard of his contumacy, without any regard to the safety of others or of himself, he bore himself onwards like a rapid torrent, with an impetuosity which would listen to no reason, to sweep away all the obstacles which opposed his will.

II.

§ 1. NoR indeed was the East the only quarter which this plague affected with its various disasters. For the Isaurians also, a people who were accustomed to frequent alternations of peace, and of turbulence which threw everything into confusion with sudden outbreaks-impunity having fostered their growing audacity and encouraged it to evil—broke out in a formidable war. Being especially excited, as they gave out by this indignity, that some of their allies, having been taken prisoners, were in an unprecedented manner exposed to wild beasts, and in the games ..f the amphitheatre, at Iconium, a town of Pisidia. 2. And as Cicero' says, that “even wild beasts, when reminded by hunger, generally return to that place where they have been fed before.” So they all, descending like a whirlwind from their high and pathless mountains, came into the districts bordering on the sea: in which hiding . themselves in roads full of lurking-places, and in defiles, when the long nights were approaching, the moon being at What time new, and so not yet giving her full light, they Iay wait for the sailors; and when they perceived that they were wrapped in sleep, they, crawling on their hands and feet along the cables which held the anchors, and raising themselves up by them, swung themselves into the boats, * The passage is found in Ciceros Oration pro Cluentio, c. 25.

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