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not those whom Montius had meant, but some tribunes, superintendents of the manufactures of arms, who had promised him information if they heard of any revolutionary measures being agitated.

19. About the same time Apollinaris, the son-in-law 0. Domitianus, who a short time before had been the chief steward of the Caesars palace, being sent to Mesopotamia by his father-in-law, took exceeding pains to inquire among the soldiers whether they had received any secret despatches from the Caesar, indicating his having meditated any

deeper designs than usual. And as soon as he heard of the‘

events which had taken place at Antioch, he passed through the lesser Armenia and took the road to Constantinople;

but he was seized on his journey by the Protectors, and

brought back to Antioch, and there kept in close confinement.

20. And while these things were taking place there was discovered at Tyre a royal robe, which had been secretly made, though it was quite uncertain who had placed it where it was, or for whose use it had been made. And on that account the governor of the province, who was at that time the father of Apollinaris, and bore the same name, was arrested as an accomplice in his guilt; and great numbers of other persons were collected from different cities, who were all involved in serious accusations. ‘

21. And now, when the trumpets of internal war and slaughter began to sound, the turbulent disposition of the Caesar, indifferent to any consideration of the truth, began also to break forth, and that not secretly as before. And without making any solemn investigation into the truth of the charges brought against the citizens. and without separating the innocent from the guilty, he discarded all ideas of right or justice, as if they had been expelled from the seat of judgment. And while all lawful defence on trials was silent, the torturer, and plunderer, and the executioner, and every kind of confiscation of property, raged unrestrained throughout the eastern provinces of the empire, which I think it now a favourable moment to enumerate, with the exception of Mesopotamia, which I have already described when I was relating the Parthian wars; and also with the exception of Egypt, which I am forced to postpone to another opportunity.

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A.P. 353.] DESCRIPTION OF CILICIA. 27

VIII.

§ 1. AFTER passing over the summit of Mount Taurus, which
towards the east rises up to a vast height, Cilicia spreads
itself out for a very great distance—a land rich in all valu-
able productions. It is bordered on its right by Isauria,
which is equally fertile in vines and in many kinds of
in. The Calycadnus, a navigable river, flows through
the middle of Isaurus.
2. This province, besides other towns, is particularly
adorned by two cities, Seleucia, founded by King Seleucus,
and Claudiopolis, which the Emperor Claudius Caesar esta-
blished as a colony. For the city of Isauria, which was
formerly too powerful, was in ancient times overthrown as
an incurable and dangerous rebel, and so completely de-
stroyed that it is not easy to discover any traces of its
pristine splendour. -
3. The province of Cilicia, which exults in the river
Cydnus, is ornamented by Tarsus, a city of great magni-
ficence. This city is said to have been founded by Perseus,
the son of Jupiter and Danaë; or else, and more probably,
by a certain emigrant who came from Ethiopia, by name
Sandan, a man of great wealth and of noble birth. It is
also adorned by the city of Anazarbus, which bears the
name of its founder; and by Mopsuestia, the abode of the
celebrated seer Mopsus, who wandered from his comrades
the Argonauts when they were returning after having
carried off the Golden Fleece, and strayed to the African
coast, where he died a sudden death. His heroic remains,
though covered by Punic turf, have ever since that time
cured a great variety of diseases, and have generally re-
stored men to sound health.
4. These two provinces being full of banditti were for-
merly subdued by the pro-consul Servilius, in a piratical
war, and were passed under the yoke, and made tributary
to the empire. These districts being placed, as it were, on
a prominent tongue of land, are cut off from the main conti-
ment by Mount Amanus.
5. The frontier of the East stretching straight forward
for a great distance, reached from the banks of the river
Euphrates to those of the Nile, being bounded on the

left by the tribes of the Saracens and on the right by the sea.

6. Nicator Seleucus, after he had occupied that district, increased its prosperity to a wonderful degree, when, after the death of Alexander, king of Macedonia, he took possession of the kingdom of Persia by right of succession; being a mighty and victorious king, as his surname indicates. And making free use of his numerous subjects, whom he governed for a long time in tranquillity, he changed groups of rustic habitations into regular cities, important for their great wealth and power, the greater part of which at the present ,day, although they are called by Greek names which were given them by the choice of their founder, have nevertheless not lost their original appellations which the original settlers of the villages gave them in the Assyrian language.

7. After Osdroene, which, as I have already said, I intend to omit from this description, the first province to be mentioned is Oornmagena, now called Euphratensis, which has arisen into importance by slow degrees, and is remarkable for the splendid cities of Hierapolis, the ancient Ninus, and Samosata.

8. The next province is Syria, which is spread over a beautiful champaign country. This province is ennobled by Antioch, a city known over the whole world, with which no other can vie in respect of its riches, whether imported or natrurali and by Laodicea and Apameia, and also by Seleucia, all cities which have ever been most prosperous from their earliest foundation.

9. After this comes Phoenicia, a province lying under Mount Lebanon, full of beauty and elegance, and decorated with cities of great size and splendour, among which Tyre excels all in the beauty of its situation and in its renown. And next come Sidon and Berytus, and on a par with them Emissa and Damascus, cities founded in remote ages. A

10. These provinces, which the river Orontes borders, a river which passes by the foot of the celebrated and lofty mountain Cassius, and at last falls into the Levant near the Gulf of Issus, were added to the Roman dominion by Cnaens Pompey, who, after he had conquered Tigranes, separated them from the kingdom of Armenia.

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l.D. 353.1 ARABIA. 29

11. The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent. abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were,

in parallel lines. For instance, Caasarea, which Herod built _

in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages. ‘

12. ln these districts no navigable river is seen: in many places, too, waters naturally hot rise out of the ground well suited for the cure of various diseases. These regions also Pompey formed into a Roman province after he had subdued the Jews and taken Jerusalem: and he made over their government to a local governor.

13. Contiguous to Palestine is Arabia, a country which on its other side joins the l\'-abathaei-a land full of the most plenteous variety of merchandize, and studded with strong forts and castles, which the watchful solicitude of its ancient inhabitants has erected in suitable defiles, in order to repress the inroads of the neighbouring nations. This province, too, besides several towns, has some mighty cities, such as Bostra, Gerasa, and Philadelphia. fortified with very strong walls. It was the Emperor Trajan who first gave this country the name of a. Roman province, and appointed a governor over it, and compelled it to obey our laws, after having by repeated victories crushed the arrogance of the inhabitants, when he was carrying his glorious aims into Media and Parthia. I

14. There is also the island of Cyprus, not very far from the continent, and abounding in excellent harbours, which, besides its many municipal towns, is especially famous for two renowned cities, Salamis and Paphos, the one celebrated for its temple of Jupiter, the other for its temple ot Venus. This same Cyprus is so fertile, and so abounding in riches of every kind, that without requiring any external assistance, it can by its own native resources build a merchant ship from the very foundation of the keel up to the top sails, and send it to sea fully equipped with stores.

15. It is not to be denied that the Roman people invaded this island with more covetousness than justice. For when Ptolemy, the king, who was connected with us by

treaty, and was also our ally, was without any fault of his '

own proscribed. merely on account of the necessities of our treasury, and slew himself by taking poison, the island was made tributary to us, and its spoils placed on board our fleet, as if taken from an enemy, and carried to Rome by Cato. We will now return to the actions of Constantius in their due order.

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§ -1. ‘Amp all these various disasters, Ursicinus, who was the governor of Nisibis, an oflicer to whom the command of the emperor had particularly attached me as a servant, was summoned from that city, and in spite of his reluctance, and of the opposition which he made to the clamorous bands of flatterers, was forced to investigate the origin of the pernicious strife which had arisen. He was indeed a. soldier of great skill in war, and an approved leader of troops ; but a man who had always kept himself aloof from the strife of the forum. He, alarmed at his own danger when he saw the corrupt accusers and judges who were associated with him, all emerging out of the same lurkingplaces, wrote secret letters to Oonstantius informing him of what was going on, both publicly and in secret; and imploring such assistance as, by striking fear into Gallus, should somewhat curb his notorious arrogance.

2. But through excessive caution he had fallen into a worse snare, as we shall relate hereafter, since his enemies got the opportunity of laying numerous snares for him, to poison the mind of Constantius against him; Constantius, in other respects a prince of moderation, was severe and implacable if any person, however mean and unknown, whispered suspicion of danger into his ears, and in such matters was wholl y unlike himself.

3. On the day appointed for this fatal examination, the master of the horse took his seat under the pretence of

being the judge; others being also set as his assessors,

who were instructed beforehand what was to be done: and there were present also notaries on each side of him, who kept the Caesar rapidly and continually informed of all the questions which were put and all the answers which were given ; and by his pitiless orders, urged as he was by

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