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armed men. Barbatio, entering the palace before daybreak, stripped the Cæsar of his royal robes, and clothed him with a tunic and an ordinary soldier's garment, assuring him with many protestations, as if by the especial command of the emperor, that he should be exposed to no further suffering; and then said to him, “ Stand up at once." And having suddenly placed him in a private carriage, he conducted him into Istria, near to the town of Pola, where it is reported that Crispus, the sou of Constantine, was formerly put to death.

21. And while he was there kept in strict confinement, being already terrified with apprehensions of his approaching destruction, Eusebius, at that time the high chamberlain, arrived in haste, and with him Pentadius the secretary, and Mallobaudes the tribune of the guard, who had the emperor's orders to compel him to explain, case by case, on what accounts he had ordered each of the individuals whom he had executed at Antioch to be put to death.

22. He being struck with a paleness like that of Adrastus' at these questions, was only able to reply that he had put most of them to death at the instigation of his wife Constantina ; being forsooth ignorant that when the mother of Alexander the Great urged him to put to death some one who was innocent, and in the hope of prevailing with him, repeated to him over and over again that she had borne bim nine months in her womb, and was his mother, that emperor made her this prudent answer, “My excellent mother, ask for some other reward ; for the life of a man cannot be put in the balance with any kind of service.”

23. When this was known, the emperor, giving way to unchangeable indignation and anger, saw that his only hope of establishing security firmly lay in putting the Cæsar to death. And having sent Serenianus, whom we have already spoken of as having been accused of treason, but acquitted by intrigue, and Pentadius the secretary, and Apodemius the secretary for the provinces, he commanded that they should put him to death. And

1 A paleness such as overspread the countenance of Adrastus when he saw his two sons-in-law, Pydeus and Polynices, slain at Thebes Virgil speaks of Adrasti pallentis imago, Æn. vi. 480.

accordingly his hands were bound like those of some convicted thief, and he was beheaded, and his carcass, which but a little while ago had been the object of dread to cities and provinces, deprived of head and defaced: it was then left on the ground.

24. In this the supervision of the supreme Deity mani. fested itself to be everywhere vigilant. For not only did the cruelties of Gallus bring about his own destruction, but they also who, by their pernicious flattery and instigation, and charges supported by perjury, had led him to the perpetration of many murders, not long afterwards died miserably. Scudilo, being afflicted with a liver complaint which penetrated to his lungs, died vomiting; while Barbatio, who had long busied himself in inventing false accusations against Gallus, was accused by secret information of aiming at some post higher than his command of infantry, and being condemned, though unjustly, was put to death, and so by his melancholy end made atonement to the shade of the Cæsar.

25. These, and innumerable other actions of the same kind, Adrastea, who is also called Nemesis, the avenger of wicked and the rewarder of good deeds, is continually bringing to pass : would that she could always do so! She is a kind of sublime agent of the powerful Deity, dwelling, according to common belief, above the human circle ; or, as others define her, she is a substantial protection, presiding over the particular destinies of individuals, and feigned by the ancient theologians to be the daughter of Justice, looking down from a certain inscrutable eternity upon all terrestrial and mundane affairs.

26. She, as queen of all causes of events, and arbitress and umpire in all affairs of life, regulates the urn which contains the lots of men, and directs the alternations of fortune which we behold in the world, frequently bringing our undertakings to an issue different from what we intended, and involving and changing great numbers of actions. She also, binding the vainly swelling pride of mankind by the indissoluble fetters of necessity, and swaying the inclination of progress and decay according to her will, sometimes bows down and enfeebles the stiff neck of arrogance, and sometimes raises virtuous men from the

A.D. 363.)



lowest depth, leading them to a prosperous and happy life. And it is on this account that the fables of antiquity have represented her with wings, that she may be supposed to be present at all events with prompt celerity. And they have also placed a rudder in her hand and given her a wheel under her feet, that mankind may be aware that she governs the universe, running at will through all the elements."

27. In this untimely manner did the Cæsar, being himself also already weary of life, die, in the twenty-ninth year of his age, having reigned four years. He was born in the country of the Etrurians, in the district of Veternum, being the son of Constantius, the brother of the Emperor Constantine; his mother was Galla, the sister of Rufinus and Cerealis, men who had been ennobled by the offices of consul and prefect.

28. He was a man of splendid stature and great beanty of person and figure, with soft hair of a golden colour, bis newly sprouting beard covering his cheeks with a tender down, and in spite of his youth his countenance showed dignity and authority. He differed as much from the temperate habits of his brother Julian, as the sons of Vespasian, Domitian and Titus, differed from each other.

29. After he had been taken by the emperor as his colleague, and raised to the higbest eminence of power, he experienced the fickle changeableness of fortune which mocks mortality, sometimes raising individuals to the


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1 Ammianus bere confounds Nemesis with Fortuna.
Horace's description of the latter goddess, Lib. i. Od. 34 :-

Valet ima summis
Mutare, et insiguia attenuat deus
Obscura promens : hinc apicem rapax

Fortuna cum stridore acuto

Sustulit; hic posuisse gaudet."
Or, as it is translated by Dr. Francis :

• The hand of Jove can crush the proud
Down to the meanness of the crowd :

And raise the lowest in his stead:
But rapid Fortune pulls him down,
And snatches his imperial crown,

To place, not fix it, on another's head."
3 Near the modern city of Sienna.

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stars, at others sinking them to the lowest depths of bell.

30. And though the examples of such vicissitudes are beyond number, nevertheless I will only enumerable a few in a cursory manner. This changeable and fickle fortune made Agathocles, the Sicilian, a king from being a potter, and reduced Dionysius, formerly the terror of all nations, to be the master of a grammar school. This same fortune emboldened Andriscus of Adramyttium, who had been born in a fuller's shop, to assume the name of Philip, and compelled the legitimate son of Perseus' to descend to the trade of a blacksmith to obtain a livelihood. Again, fortune surrendered Mancinus to the people of Numantia, after he had enjoyed the supreme command, exposed Veturius: to the cruelty of the Samnites, Claudius* to that of the Corsicans, and made Regulus a victim to the ferocity of the Carthaginians. Through the injustice of fortune, Pompey, after he had acquired the surname of the Great by the grandeur of his exploits, was murdered in Ægypt at the pleasure of some eunuchs, while a fellow named Eunus, a slave who bad escaped from a house of correction, commanded an army of runaway slaves in Sicily. How many men of the highest birth, through the connivance of this same fortune, submitted to the authority of Viriathus and of Spartacus !! heads at which nations once trembled have fallen under the deadly hand of the executioner! One man is thrown into prison, another is promoted to unexpected power,

1 See Plutarch's Life of Æmilius, c. 37. The name of the young prince was Alexander.

2 Called also Hostilius; cf. Vell. Paterc. ii. 1. 3 Cf. Liv. ix. c. X.; Cicero de Officiis, iii. 30. 4 Of Val. Max. vi. 3. 5 Cf. Horace, Od. iv. ult. ; Florus, ii. 1. The story of the cruelties inflicted on Regulus is now, however, generally disbelieved.

6 The fate of Pompey served also as an instance to Juvenal in his satire on the vanity of human wishes.

Provida Pompeio diderat Campania febres
Optandas, sed multæ urbes et publica vota
Vicerunt; igitur Fortuna ipsius et urbis
Servatum victo caput abstulit.

Sat. X. 283, &c. Spartacus was the celebrated leader of the slaves in the Servile War.

How many


A.D. 354.] a third is hurled down from the highest rank and dignity. But he who would endeavour to enumerate all the varivus and frequent instances of the caprice of fortune, might as well undertake to number the sands or ascertain the weight of mountains.



I. The death of the Cæsar Gallus is announced to the emperor.

II. Ursicinus, the commander of the cavalry in the East; Julian, the brother of the Cæsar Gallus; and Gorgonius, the high chamberlain, are accused of treason.—III. The adherents and servants of the Cæsar Gallus are punished.-IV. The Allemanni of the district of Lintz are defeated by the Emperor Constantius with great loss. - V. Silvanus, a Frank, the commander of the infantry in Gaul, is saluted as emperor at Cologne; and on the twenty-eighth day of his reign is destroyed by stratagem.-VI. The friends and adherents of Silvanus are put to death.- VII. Seditions of the Roman people are repressed by Leontius, the prefect of the city ; Liberius, the bishop, is driven from his see.-VIII. Julian, the brother of Gallus, is created Cæsar by the Emperor Constantius, his uncle; and is appointed to command.-IX. On the origin of the Gauls, and from whence they derive the names of Celts and Gauls; and of their treaties.-X. Of the Gallic Alps, and of the various passes over them.-XI. A brief description of Gaul, and of the course of the River Rhone.--XII. Of the manners of the Gauls.-XII. Of Musonianus, prefect of the Prætorium in the East.


A.D. 354.

$ 1. Having investigated the truth to the best of our power we have hitherto related all the transactions which either our age permitted us to witness, or which we could learn from careful examination of those who were concerned in them, in the order in which the several events took place. The remaining facts, which the succeeding books will set forth, we will, as far as our talent permits, explain with the greatest accuracy, without fearing those who may be inclined to cavil at our work as too long;

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