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traveller unhurt to his destination; though if these piles get covered with snow and hidden, or thrown down by melting torrents descending from the mountains, then it is difficult for any one to pass, even if natives of the district lead the way. 6. But on the summit of this Italian mountain there is a plain, seven miles in extent, reaching as far as the station known by the name of Mars; and after that comes another ridge, still more steep, and scarcely possible to be climbed, which stretches on to the summit of Mons Matrona, named so from an event which happened to a noble lady. 7. From this point a path, steep indeed, but easily passable, leads to the fortress of Virgantia. The sepulchre of this petty prince whom we have spoken of as the maker of these roads is at Susa, close to the walls; and his remains are honoured with religious veneration for two reasons: first of all, because he governed his people with equitable moderation; and secondly, because, by becoming an ally of the Roman republic, he procured lasting tranquillity for his subjects. 8. And although this road which I have been speaking of runs through the centre of the district, and is shorter and more frequented now than any other, yet other roads also were made at much earlier periods, on different occa*Slons. 9. The first of them, near the maritime alps, was made by the Theban Hercules, when he was proceeding in a leisurely manner to destroy Geryon and Tauriscus, as has already been mentioned; and he it was who gave to these alps the name of the Grecian Alps." In the same way he consecrated the citadel and port of Monaecus to keep alive the recollection of his name for ever. And this was the reason why, many ages afterwards, those alps were called the Penine Alps.” 10. Publius Cornelius Scipio, the father of the elder Africanus, when about to go to the assistance of the citizens

1 Briançon.

* The Graiae Alps are the Little St. Bernard; and it was over them that Hannibal really passed, as has been conclusively proved by Dr. J. A. Cramer.

* From the god Pen, or Peninus, Liv. xxi. 38. The Alpes Penina are the Great St. Bernard.

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A.D. 355..] . HANNIBAL's PASSAGE OF THE ALPs. 77

of Saguntum-celebrated for the distresses which they
endured, and for their loyalty to Rome, at the time when
they were besieged with great resolution by the Cartha-
ginians—led to the Spanish coast a fleet having on board a
numerous army. But after the city had been destroyed by
the valour of the Carthaginians, he, being unable to over-
take Hannibal, who had crossed the Rhone, and had
obtained three days' start of him in the march towards
Italy, crossed the sea, which at that point was not wide,
making a rapid voyage; and taking his station near Genoa,
a town of the Ligures, awaited his descent from the moun-
tains, so that, if chance should afford him an oppor-
tunity, he might attack him in the plain while still fatigued
with the ruggedness of the way by which he had come.
11. But still, having regard to the interests of the
republic, he ordered Cnaeus Scipio, his brother, to go into
Spain, to prevent Hasdrubal from making a similar expedi-
tion from that country. But Hannibal, having received
information of their design by some deserters, being also
a man of great shrewdness and readiness of resources,
obtained some guides from the Taurini who inhabited those
districts, and passing through the Tricastini and through
the district of the Vocontii, he thus reached the defiles of
the Tricorii. Then starting from this point, he made
another march over a line previously impassable. And
having cut through a rock of immense height, which he
melted by means of mighty fires, and pouring over it a
quantity of vinegar, he proceeded along the Druentia, a
river full of danger from its eddies and currents, until he
reached the district of Etruria. This is enough to say of
the Alps; now let us return to our original subject.

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§ 1. IN former times, when these provinces were little known, as being barbarous, they were considered to be divided into three races:" namely, the Celtae, the same who are also called Galli; the Aquitani, and the Belgae : all differing from each other in language, manners, and laws. 2. The Galli, who, as I have said, are the same as the Celtae, are divided from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, which rises in the mountains of the Pyrenees; and after passing through many towns, loses itself in the ocean. 3. On the other side they are separated from the Belgians by the Marne and the Seine, both rivers of considerable size, which flowing through the tribe of the Lugdunenses, after surrounding the stronghold of the Parisii named Lutetia, so as to make an island of it, proceed onwards together, and fall into the sea near the camp of Con. stantius. 4. Of all these people the Belgians are said by ancient writers to be the most warlike, because, being more remote from civilization, and not having been rendered effeminate by foreign luxuries, they have been engaged in continual wars with the Germans on the other side of the Rhine. 5. For the Aquitanians, to whose shores, as being nearest and also pacific, foreign merchandise is abundantly imported, were easily brought under the dominion of the Romans, because their character had become enervated. 6. But from the time when the Gauls, after long and repeated wars, submitted to the dictator Julius, all their provinces were governed by Roman officers, the country being divided into four portions; one of which was the province of Narbonne; containing the districts of Vienne and Lyons: a second province comprehended all the tribes of the Aquitanians; upper and lower Germany formed a third jurisdiction, and the Belgians a fourth at that period. 7. But now the whole extent of the country is portioned out into many provinces. The second (or lower) Germany is the first, if you begin on the western side, fortified by Cologne and Tongres, both cities of great wealth and importance. 8. Next comes the first (or high) Germany, in which, besides other municipal towns, there is Mayence, and Worms, and Spiers, and Strasburg, a city celebrated for the defeats sustained by the barbarians in its neighbourhood. 9. After these the first Belgic province stretches as far

* Compare Livy's account of Hannibal's march, from which, wholly erroneous as it is, this description seems to have been taken; not that even Livy has made such a gross mistake about the Druentia, or Durance, which falls into the Rhone.

* Caesar's account of his expedition begins with the statement that “Gaul is divided into three provinces."

A.D. 355.] PROVINCES OF GAUL. 79

as Metz and Treves, which city is the splendid abode of the chief governor of the country. 10. Next to that comes the second Belgic province, where we find Amiens, a city of conspicuous magnificence, and Chalons, and Rheims. 11. In the province of the Sequani, the finest cities are Besançon and Basle. The first Lyonnese province contains Lyons, Châlons,” Sens, Bourges, and Autun, the walls of which are very extensive and of great antiquity. 12. In the second Lyonnese province are Tours, and Rouen, Evreux, and Troyes. The Grecian and Penine Alps have, besides other towns of less note, Avenche, a city which indeed is now deserted, but which was formerly one of no small importance, as even now is proved by its half-ruinous edifices. These are the most important provinces, and most splendid cities of the Galli. 13. In Aquitania, which looks towards the Pyrenees, and that part of the ocean which belongs to the Spaniards, the first province is Aquitanica, very rich in large and populous cities; passing over others, I may mention as pre-eminent, Bordeaux, Clermont, Saintes, and Poictiers. 14. The province called the Nine Nations is enriched by Ausch and Bazas. In the province of Narbonne, the cities of Narbonne, Euses, and Toulouse are the principal places of importance. The Viennese exults in the magnificence of many cities, the chief of which are Vienne itself, and Arles, and Valence; to which may be added Marseilles, by the alliance with and power of which we read that Rome itself was more than once supported in moments of danger. 15. And near to these cities is also Aix, Nice, Antibes, and the islands of Hieres. 16. And since we have come in the progress of our work to this district, it would be inconsistent and absurd to omit all mention of the Rhone, a river of the greatest celebrity. The Rhone rises in the Penine Alps, from sources of great abundance, and descending with headlong impetuosity into the more champaign districts, it often overruns its banks with its own waters, and then plunges into a lake called Lake Leman, and though it passes through it, yet it never mingles with any foreign waters, but, rushing over the top of those which flow with less * Châlons sur Marne. * Châlons sur Saône.

rapidity, in its search for an exit, it forces its own way by the viglence of its stream.

l7?"'And thus passing through that lake without any damage, it runs through Savoy and the district of Franche (Jomté; and, after a long course, it forms the boundary between the Viennese on its left, and the Lyonnese on its right. Then after many windings it receives the Saone, a river which rises in the first Germany, and this latter river here merges its name in the Rhone. At this point is the beginning of the Gauls. And from this spot the distances are measured not by miles but by leagues. _

18. From this point also, the Rhone, being now enriched by other rivers, becomes navigable for large vessels, which are often tossed about in it by gales of wind ; and at last, having finished the course which nature has marked out for it, foaming on it joins the Gallic Sea in the wide gulf which they call the Gulf of Lyons, about eighteen miles from Arles. This is enough to say of the situation of the province; I will now proceed to describe the appearance and character of the inhabitants. '

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§ .1. NEARLY all the Gauls are of a lofty stature, fair, and of ruddy complexion; terrible from the sternness of their eyes, very quarrelsome, and of great pride and insolence. A whole troop of foreigners would not be able to withstand a single Gaul if he called his wife to his assistance. who is usually very strong, and with blue eyes; especially when, swelling her neck, gnashing her teeth, and brandishing her sallow arms of enormous size, she begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so many missiles sent from the string of a catapult.

2. The voices of the generality are formidable and threatening, whether they are in good humour or angry : they are all exceedingly careful of cleanliness and neatness, nor in all the country, and most especially in Aquitania, could any man or woman, however poor, be seen either dirty or ragged.

3. The men of every age are equally inclined to war, and the old man and the man in the prime of life answerwith equal zeal the call to arms, their bodies being

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