A.D. 355.] MANNERS OF GAUL. 81

hardened by their cold weather and by constant exercise. so that they are all inclined to despise dangers and terrors. Nor has any one of this nation ever mutilated his thumb from fear of the toils of war, as men have done in Italy, whom in their district are called Murci. 4. The nation is fond of wine, and of several kinds of liquor which resemble wine. And many individuals of the lower orders, whose senses have become impaired by continual intoxication, which the apophthegm of Cato defined to be a kind of voluntary madness, run about in all directions at random; so that there appears to be some point in that saying which is found in Cicero's oration in defence of Fonteius, “that henceforth the Gauls will drink their wine less strong than formerly,” because forsooth they thought there was poison in it. 5. These countries, and especially such parts of them as border on Italy, fell gradually under the dominion of the Romans without much trouble to their conquerors, having been first attacked by Fulvius, afterwards weakened in many trifling combats by Sextius, and at last entirely subdued by Fabius Maximus; who gained an additional surname from the complete accomplishment of this task, after he had brought into subjection the fierce tribe of the Allobroges. 6. Caesar finally subdued all the Gauls, except where their country was absolutely inaccessible from its morasses, as we learn from Sallust, after a war of ten years, in which both nations suffered many disasters; and at last he united them to us in eternal alliance by formal treaties. I have digressed further than I had intended, but now I will return to my original subject.


§ 1. AFTER Domitianus had perished by a cruel death,

Musonianus his successor governed the East with the

rank of praetorian prefect; a man celebrated for his

eloquence and thorough knowledge of both the Greek

and Latin languages; from which he reaped a loftier glory

than he expected. 2. For when Constantine was desirous of obtaining a

more accurate knowledge of the different sects in the empire, the Manicheans and other similar bodies, and no one could be found able suflicient-ly to explain them, Musonianus was chosen for the task, having been recommended as competent; and when he had discharged this duty with skill, the emperor gave him the name of Muscnianus, for he had been previously called Strategius. After that he ran through many degrees of rank and honour, and soon reached the dignity of prefect; being in other matters also a man of wisdom, popular in the provinces, and of a mild and courteous disposition. But at the same time, whenever he could find an opportunity, especially in any controversies or lawsuits (which is most shameful. and wicked), he was greatly devoted to sordid gain. Not to mention many other instances, this was especially exemplified in the investigations which were made into the death of Theophilus, the governor of Syria, a man of consular rank, who gave information against the Caesar Gallus, and who was torn to pieces in a tumult of the people; for which several poor men were condemned, who, it was clearly proved, were at a distance at the time of the transaction, while certain rich men who were the real authors of the crime were spared from all punishment, except the oonfiscation of their property.

3. In this he was equalled by Prosper, at that time master of the horse in Gaul; a man of abject spirit and great inactivity; and, as the comic poet has it, despising the acts of secret robbing he plundered openly.‘

4. And, while these two ofiicers were conniving to-

gether, and reciprocally helping each other to many means

of acquiring riches, the chiefs of the Persian nation who

lived nearest to the river, profiting by the fact that the king was occupied in the most distant parts of his dominions, and that these commanders were occupied in plundering the people placed under their authority, began to harass our territories with predatory bands, making audacious inroads, sometimes into Armenia, often also into


1 Ammianus refers to Plautus. Epidicus, Act. L, sc. i., line 10 :— Theaprio. I am less of a pilferer now than formerly.

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I. A panegyric of Julian the Caesar.—II. Julian attacks and defeats the Allemanni-III. He recovers Cologne, which had been taken by the Franks, and concludes a peace with the king of the Franks. –IV. He is besieged in the city of Sens by the Allemanni-V. His virtues.—VI. The prosecution and acquittal of Arbetio.—VII. The Caesar Julian is defended before the emperor by his chamberlain Eutherius against the accusations of Marcellus.—VIII. Calumnies are rife in the camp of the Emperor Constantius, and the courtiers are rapacious.—IX. The question of peace with the Persians.— X.—The triumphal entry of Constantius into Rome—XI. Julian attacks the Allemanni in the islands of the Rhine in which they had taken refuge, and repairs the fort of Saverne.—XII. He attacks the kings of the Allemanni on the borders of Gaul, and defeats them at Strasburg.

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§ 1. While the chain of destiny was bringing these events to pass in the Roman world, Julian, being at Vienne, was taken by the emperor, then in his own eighth consulship, as a partner in that dignity; and, under the promptings of his own innate energy, dreamt of nothing but the crash of battles and the slaughter of the barbarians; preparing without delay to re-establish the province, and to reunite the fragments that had been broken from it, if only fortune should be favourable to him. 2. And because the great achievements which by his valour and good fortune Julian performed in the Gauls, surpass many of the most gallant exploits of the ancients, I will relate them in order as they occurred, employing all the resources of my talents, moderate as they are, in the hope that they may suffice for the narrative. 3. But what I am about to relate, though not emblazoned by craftily devised falsehood, and being simply a plain statement of facts, supported by evident proofs, will have all the effect of a studied panegyric. 4. For it would seem that some principle of a more than commonly virtuous life guided this young prince from his

very cradle to his last breath. Increasing rapidly in every desirable quality, he soon became so conspicuous both at home and abroad, that in respect to his prudence he was looked upon as a second Titus: in his glorious deeds of war he was accounted equal to Trajan; in mercy he was the prototype of Antoninus ; and in the pursuit and discovery of true and perfect wisdom, he resembled Marcus Aurelius, in imitation of whom he formed all his actions and character.

5. And since, as we are taught by Cicero, that the loftiness of great virtues delights us, as does that of high trees, while we are not equally interested in the roots and trunks; so, also, the first beginnings of his admirable disposition were kept concealed by many circumstances which threw a cloud over them; though in fact they ought to be preferred to many of his most marvellous actions of later

life, in that he, who in his early youth had been brought _

up like Erectheus in the retirement sacred to Minerva, nevertheless when he was drawn forth from the quiet shades of the academy (and not from any military tent into the labours of war, subdued Germany, tranquillize the districts of the frozen Rhine, routed the barbarian kings breathing nothing but bloodshed and slaughter, and forced

them to submission. II.

§ 1. THEREFORE while passing a toilsome winter in the city aforesaid, he-learnt, among the numerous reports which were flying about, that the ancient city of Autun, the walls of which, though of vast extent, were in a state of great decay from age, was now besieged by the barba.rians, who had suddenly appeared before it in great force; and while the garrison remained panic-stricken and inactive, the town was defended by a body of veterans who were behaving with great courage and vigilance ; as it often happens that extreme despair repulses dangers which appear destructive of all hope or safety.

2. Therefore. without relaxing his anxiety about other matters, and putting aside all the adulation of the courtiers with which they sought to divert his mind towards voluptnousness and luxury, he hastened his preparations, and when everything was ready he set out, and on the 24th of

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June arrived at Autun; behaving like a veteran general
conspicuous alike for skill and prowess, and prepared to
fall upon the barbarians, who were straggling in every
direction over the country, the moment fortune afforded
him an opportunity.
3. Therefore having deliberated on his plans, and con-
sulted those who were acquainted with the country as to
what would be the safest line of march for him to adopt,
after having received much information in favour of dif-
ferent routes, some recommending Arbois, others insisting
on it that the best way was by Saulieu and Cure.
4. But as some persons affirmed that Silvanus, in com-
mand of a body of infantry, had, a short time before, made

his way with 8,000 men by a road shorter than either, but

dangerous as lying through many dark woods and defiles
suitable for ambuscades, Julian became exceedingly eager
to imitate the audacity of this brave man.
5. And to prevent any delay, taking with him only his
cuirassiers and archers, who would not have been sufficient
to defend his person had he been attacked, he took the
same route as Silvanus; and so came to Auxerre.
6. And there, having, according to his custom, devoted
a short time to rest, for the purpose of refreshing his men,
he proceeded onwards towards Troyes; and strengthened
his flanks that he might with the greater effect watch the
barbarians, who attacked him in numerous bodies, which he
avoided as well as he could, thinking them more numerous
than they really were. Presently, however, having occupied
some favourable ground, he descended upon one body of
them, and routed it, and took some prisoners whom their
own fears delivered to him; and then he allowed the rest,
who now devoted all their energies to flying with what
speed they could, to escape unattacked, as his men could
not pursue them by reason of the weight of their armour.
7. This occurrence gave him more hope of being able
to resist any attack which they might make, and marching
forwards with this confidence, after many dangers he
reached Troyes so unexpectedly, that when he arrived at
the gates, the inhabitants for some time hesitated to give
him entrance into the city, so great was their fear of the
straggling multitudes of the barbarians.
8. After a little delay, devoted to again refreshing his
weary troops, thinking that there was no time to waste, he

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