replaced in 1871 by a more convenient church. There are here Afon Gwyfan and Porth Gwyfan.

Dyserth Church, in Flintshire, is sometimes said to be dedicated to S. Cwyfan.1 Edward Lhuyd, in his so-called Itinerary, 1699, wrote under the parish—“ Their Saint Gwyvan; and Wakes ye next Sunday after ye 2 of June. Fynnon Gwyva ai vrythyllied wrth yr Eglwys (Cwyfan's Well and his Trout are near the Church). His Holy Well bubbled forth in a beautiful crystal spring among the rocks within a stone's throw eastwardly of the church, but the lead-mining operations at Talargoch have, since the beginning of last century, entirely drained away its waters. The church, however, is generally regarded, certainly to-day, as being dedicated to S. Brigid, in Welsh, S. Ffraid.2

The festival of S. Cwyfen, which occurs in a great number of the Welsh Calendars, is given on June 3. So also by Browne Willis. In the Calendar in the Prymer of 1633, and in a number of eighteenth century Welsh Almanacs, it is, however, on the 2nd; and in the Calendar in Jesus College MS. 7 on the 4th ; but he must have been entered against these days by mistake. In the Calendars in the Iolo MSS. and the Prymer of 1546 his name is given as Cofen, which seems to identify for us the patron of Llangoven, Monmouthshire, who is otherwise unknown. This church-name appears also as Lancomen, Lanchouian,' and Llangofien. The name is not to be confounded with that of the patron of S. Govan's Chapel, Pembrokeshire.

One MS. quoted in the Myvyrian Archaiology & gives a S. Cwyfyn ab Arthalun, of Glyn Achlach. By the last name is no doubt meant Glendalough, and the Saint is thus identified with S. Coemgen or Kevin, its abbot, whose festival is also June 3. Coemgen's father's name, however, was Coemlog, of the race of Laeghaire Lorc, monarch of Ireland; but his mother was Coenhella, or Caemell, daughter of Ceannfhionnan, son of Ceisi, of the same race. She must be the Camell or Cainell of the Welsh pedigrees.


S. CYBI, Abbot, Confessor

THERE are extant two Lives of S. Cybi or Cubi, both in Latin, and both in the same MS. Collection (Cotton MS. Vesp. A. xiv, of the early thirteenth century), in the British Museum. Both are apparently independent translations from one Welsh original.

1 See Dr. J. G. Evans, Report on Welsh MSS., i, p. 914.

. E.g., in Browne Willis, Bangor, p. 357. The remarkable stone, the Maen-ychwyfan, not far distant, most probably does not commemorate S. Cwyfen, as is often supposed. 3 Norwich Taxatio, 1254.

* Book of Llan Dâv, p. 284. 5 Dr. J. G. Evans, Report on Welsh MSS., i, p. 919.

6 P. 423.

The first has been printed by Rees in his Lives of the Cambro-British Saints (Llandovery, 1853, pp. 183-7), but very inaccurately. The errors have been indicated by Dr. Kuno Meyer, in Y Cymmrodor, xiii (1900), pp. 87–8. From this John of Tynemouth abridged his Life, which is printed in Capgrave's Nova Legenda Angliæ. John of Tynemouth's original MS. is in Cotton MS. Tiberius E. i.

That the two Lives of S. Cybi are taken from a common Welsh original hardly admits of a doubt, for both narrate the same circumstances, in the same order, and differ only in the rendering into Latin.

Solomon or Selyf, the father of S. Cybi, was princeps militiæ, or chief military officer commanding the British. He was also a Cornish king. The title would be equivalent to Dux bellorum given to Arthur by Nennius, a title that seems to have replaced that of Comes litoris Saxonici given to a functionary during the last century of the Roman dominion in Britain.2

The Lives give his pedigree differently from the Welsh genealogies. Solomon or Selyf, according to the latter, was "ab Geraint ab Erbin ab Cystennin Gorneu 3”; whereas the Lives make him a son of Erbin, son of Geraint, whom they represent as son of the fabulous Lud, the builder of London.

Chrestien de Troyes, in his Erec, the original of the Welsh tale of Geraint, makes Erec (Geraint) son of Lac (Lud or Lludd).

The mother of Cybi was Gwen, 4 sister of Non, the mother of S. David. He was, accordingly, first cousin to that great Saint.

“Ortus autem fuit de regiore Cornubiorum, inter duo flumina, Tamar et Limar” (Vita Ima). This is the principality of Gallewick, the Calwelone of Domesday, the extensive manor of Calliland or Kelliland. The Limar is now the Lynher.

At the age of seven Cybi went to school, and lived thenceforth, till he was twenty-seven years old, in Cornwall. Then he went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and after that visited S. Hilary of Poitiers, and remained with him fifty years, i.e. till he was aged seventy-seven,

1 Hist. Britonum, c. 56. 2 Zimmer, Nennius Vindicatus, Berlin, 1893, p. 285.

? Peniarth MSS. 16, 45 (both thirteenth century), 12 (fourteenth century); Cambro-British Saints, 267, etc. The Iolo MSS. have a few particulars about Cybi not found in the Lives, but they are late, and must be taken for what they are worth. He is there said to have been a saint of Bangor Dunawd (on the Dee) and also of Côr Garmon (Llancarfan or Llantwit), and Bardsey (pp. 104, 117). On p. 139 he is designated “ Archbishop of Gwynedd.”

4 She is sometimes by mistake called Tonwen (Myv. Arch., p. 421 ; Iolo MSS., p. 139).

and S. Hilary ordained him bishop. This is, of course, an anachronism, as S. Hilary died in 368. Nor does it help us if we suppose that. a mistake has been made between Hilary of Arles and his namesake of Poitiers, for the former died in 449. It is not possible to put Cybi so early, when his grandfather Geraint fell at Llongborth. The date of that battle is not at all certain. Mr. Rees sets it as occurring in 522, but we cannot be sure of that date. It is possible enough that Elian Geimiad, Cybi's kinsman, has been confused with S. Hilary here, as elsewhere. It is not possible for us to accept the statement that the Saint was as many as fifty years on the Continent.

Whilst abroad, Cybi made the acquaintance of Endeus, afterwards of Aran, and in the Life of the latter occurs a 'story of a dispute between Endeus, Cybi, and Ailbe of Emly, a holy contest as to which of the three was the most humble, which was referred to the Pope Hilary for decision, and was settled miraculously by the apparition of snow-white doves which gave the palm to Endeus. Hilary was Pope 461-8. But this Hilary is again too early.

Moreover, in the same Life, Cybi is said to have been at Rome when there was a vacancy in the papacy; and as, when the election of a successor to the see was in progress, a dove descended and rested on Cybi, he was chosen by acclaim, but refused the honour, and in his place Hilary was elected.

It is true that in the Life of Enda the name is given as Pupeus, but P and C are often permuted, as Ciaran becomes Piran, and Conoc becomes Pinock. There was, however, a Saint Papan of Santry in Dublin, and this may be the man meant, but it is more probable that Pupeus stands for Cybi, as at a later period this latter visited and was on intimate terms with Enda.

On his return to Cornwall, Cybi probably made his two important foundations of Duloe and Tregony. Duloe is remarkable as having adjoining it Morval, a foundation of his mother S. Gwen, and Pelynt, one of his aunt S. Non. If, as we may suspect, Lansalos (Lan Selyf) was a foundation of S. Selyf, then his father's church was also near by.

Tregony was formerly an important place, on a tidal estuary, and a port, but the river has now been silted up. Adjoining it is Grampound, where again his aunt Non has a church, and as a remarkable

? In his Essay, Rees has pointed out that Elian is repeatedly confused with Hilary. The epithet Ceimiad (the Pilgrim) has been read Cannaid (bright), and made to correspond with the Latin Hilarius. When the translation was made from the Welsh original of the Life of Cybi, the translators, when they came on the name, rendered it Hilarius, and jumped to the conclusion that the Saint of Poitiers was meant. Essay on the Welsh Saints, p. 267.

: Acta SS. Boll., Mart. III (March 21), pp. 267–74.

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