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which parish is entered, in the Valor of 1535, “ Oblacion' ad S'c'm Cadvan co'ibus annis-xxvj s. viij d.” (iv, p. 427; vi, p. xxvi).
It is by no means improbable that Cadfan re-visited Brittany when Grallo was dead, and he could do so in safety.
In Brittany Cadfan is known only in Finistère and Côtes du Nord, and in the latter only in that part which is near the border of Finistère. It is significant that as he is associated with Germanus as going with him to Britain, so he should have a chapel at Brasparz adjoining Pleyben, of which S. Germanus is patron. It is perhaps, indeed it is probable, that it is a mistake which makes him one of the party crossing to Wales with Germanus; but the coincidence remains; and he may have been associated with the latter in Cornugallia. At Poullan near Douarnenez, he is patron of a church and parish, in a sandy region strewn with megalithic remains. As nothing was known there of the Life of S. Cadfan the present curé has replaced him by S. Cadoc. The Patronal Feast is, however, held there on Whitsun Day, whereas S. Cadoc's day is January 24.
The most interesting memorial of him is a statue in the chapel of S. Venec on the road from Quimper to Châteaulin. Here is a group of Gwen Teirbron with her three children by her second husband Fragan, and, in addition, one of a man in armour, now ascribed to S. Gwethenoc, one of these later sons, but Gwethenoc was a monk and never anything else, whereas Cadfan is the patron of warriors. And a writer in the Bulletin de la Société Archéologique de Finistère had already suggested that this figure actually represented the eldest of her sons, Cadfan.
Cadfan was also the original patron of Cavan, in Côtes du Nord, and of S. Cava near the mouth of the Abervrach in Plouguerneau. There may have been other churches, as S. Cadou in the Sizun promontory, out of the Cadoc district, that have changed their patron, on account of so little being known of Cadfan.
That he did come back to Brittany, such dedications as remain seem to show. And there was reason why he should. His halfbrothers Winwaloe, Jacut and Gwethenoc were notable men there as monastic founders. But he was old, and they were young and vigorous ; their institutions flourished, and his decayed, and he returned to Wales, and died, either at Towyn or in Bardsey. No church in Brittany laid claims to possess his relics.
The fixing of the dates of his life can be approximate only. Germanus came over about the year 462, and Cadfan crossed probably about the same time or a little later. Rees puts his arrival later,
Between the commencement of this century (the sixth) and the
synod of Brefi, may be dated the arrival of Cadfan at the head of a large company of saints from Armorica."i Einion Frenin was the great-grandson of Cunedda, and probably belonged to the first half of the sixth century.
The Iolo MSS. are not a very trustworthy authority. In them it is stated, “Dochdwy came with Cadfan to this island, and was in Bardsey, and afterwards he was Bishop in the Church of Teilo, in Llandaff, whilst Teilo was in Bardsey with the saints there, superintending the Choir after the death of Cadfan." 2 Such a statement is clearly apocryphal. Teilo died about 580, and Cadfan was half brother of Winwaloe, the son of the same mother by a first husband, and consequently at least two years older than Winwaloe. This latter saint died in 532," full of days.” He was born about 457, and we may suppose that Cadfan was born at least as early as 447, but probably much earlier, if he were a grown man when he came over to Britain, about 462.
S. CADFARCH, Confessor
S. CADFARCH was a son of the well-known Caradog Freichfras ab Llyr Merini, by Tegau Eurfron, daughter of Nudd Hael, celebrated in the Triads for her beauty and chastity. He had as brothers SS. Cawrdaf, Tangwn, and Maethlu, and he was the father of S. Elgud.3 He was a saint or monk of Bangor Dunawd on the banks of the Dee, and, formerly, the patron of the church of Abererch, in the promontory of Lleyn. His brother Cawrdaf is now generally, and has been for some time, accounted the patron of Abererch, as also sometimes of Llangoed, in Anglesey, either solely or conjointly with Tangwn. 4 The older genealogies, however, never associate Cawrdaf with either. There is a Ffynnon Gadfarch near the site of a now extinct capella, called Llangedwydd, at the northern end of Abererch parish, and a Ffynnon Gawrdaf at Abererch. There is also a Cadair Gawrdaf (his chair) near the church.
1 Essay on the Welsh Saints, p. 213.
2 Iolo MSS., p. 112. 3 Peniarth MSS. 16 (early thirteenth century) and 45 (late thirteenth century) ; Hafod MS. 16; Myv. Arch., p. 420; Iolo MSS., pp. 104, 123; CambroBritish Saints, p. 267. Some of the genealogies make him to be the son cf Cawrdaf, but he was really his brother (Myv. Arch., p. 420).
4 See, e.g., the old parish lists in Evans, Report on Welsh MSS., i, pp. 912–3, and cf. Myv. Arch., pp. 423, 741. Browne Willis, Bangor, pp. 275, 282, gives both as dedicated to Cawrdaf.
Cadfarch is the patron of Penegoes church, called occasionally Llangadfarch, in Montgomeryshire. On the chalice, dated 1728, the church is called “Ecclesia de Pen Egwest alias Llan Gadfarch." Ffynnon Gadfarch is mentioned in the terrier of 1687, and Bishop Maddox in his MS. book Z, in the Episcopal Library at S. Asaph, has the following note, “St. Gadfarch's Well is in one field of ye Glebe. Ano'yr P'cel of ye Glebe is called Erw Gadfarch.” The well is still esteemed for its efficacy in cases of rheumatism. One of the fields on the glebe belonging to Meifod is also called Ffynnon Gadfarch.
His Festival, October 24, is not found in the earlier calendars, but it occurs in the calendars in the Welsh Prymers of 1618 and 1633, in the calendar prefixed to Allwydd Paradwys, 1670 (as Calofarch), and in almanacks generally of the eighteenth century. Browne Willis also gives the same day. See S. CAWRDAF.
His name has a parallel in the Greek 'ITTónaxos. As a common noun it means a war-horse or charger.
S. CADFRAWD, Bishop, Confessor
His name occurs among the mythical gwelygordd or clan of Brân ab Llyr. His genealogy is variously given, as the son of Cadfan ab Cynan ab Eudaf ab Caradog ab Brân, and the son of Cadfan ab Eudaf ab Coel ab Cyllin ab Caradog ab Brân. He was the father of SS. Gwrmael and Cadgyfarch. He is said to be the patron of Caerleon (now S. Cadoc), and to have been a bishop, but his see is not given.?
It has been supposed that Cadfrawd was the same as Adelfius, who is recorded to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314, the names being “almost a translation of each other." 3
Caerleon may have been the seat of a bishopric, as Giraldus Cambrensis maintained, and Adelfius may have been bishop of the see, but there is no clear evidence that he came from this town or district. He is called in the entry "episcopus de civitate Colonia Londinensium.”4 There is evidently some error here. Haddan and Stubbs and others have suggested Legionensium for Londinensium, making it refer to Caerleon ;
1 Bangor, p. 361.
2 Iolo MSS., pp. 116, 135-6.