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life in the condition of a hired laborer. Both these assumptions are false, and all inferences from them are groundless. Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first. existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration. Capital has its rights, which are as worthy of protection as any other rights. Nor is it denied that there is, and probably always will be, a relation between labor and capital, producing mutual benefits. The error is in assuming that the whole labor of community exists within that relation. A few men own capital, and that few avoid labor themselves, and, with their capital, hire or buy another few to labor for them. A large majority belong to neither class—neither work for others, nor have others working for them. In most of the southern States, a majority of the whole people of all colors, are neither slaves nor masters; while in the northern, a large majority are neither hirers nor hired. Men with their families—wives, sons, and daughters—work for themselves, on their farms, in their houses, and in their shops, taking the whole product to themselves, and asking no favors of capital on the one hand, nor of hired laborers or slaves on the other. It is not forgotten that a considerable number of persons mingle their own labor with capital—that is, they labor with their own hands, and also buy or hire others to labor for them; but this is only a mixed, and not a distinct class. No principle stated is disturbed by the existence of this mixed class. Again: as has already been said, there is not, of necessity, any such thing as the free hired laborer being fixed to that condition for life. Many independent men everywhere in these States, a few years back in their lives, were hired laborers. The prudent, penniless beginner in the world, labors for wages awhile, saves a surplus with which to buy tools or land for himself; then labors on his own account another while, and at length hires another new beginner to help him. This is the just, and generous, and prosperous system, which opens the way to all—gives hope to all, and consequent energy, and progress, and improvement of condition to all. No men living are more worthy to be trusted than those who toil up from poverty—none less inclined to take, or touch, aught which they have not honestly earned. Let them beware of surrendering a political power which

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they already possess, and which, if surrendered, will surely be used to close the door of advancement against such as they, and to fix new disabilities and burdens upon them, till all of liberty shall be lost.

From the first taking of our National Census to the last, are seventy years; and we find our population, at the end of the period, eight times as great as it was at the beginning. The increase of those other things, which men deem desirable, has been even greater. We thus have, at one view, what the popular principle, applied to government, through the machinery of the States and the Union, has produced in a given time; and also what, if firmly maintained, it promises for the future. There are already among us those who, if the Union be preserved, will live to see it contain two hundred and fifty millions. The struggle of to-day is not altogether for to-day— it is for a vast future also. With a reliance on Providence, all the more firm and earnest, let us proceed in the great task which events have devolved upon us.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. WASHINGTON, December 3, 1861.

LIST OF PAPERS

FOREIGN AFFAIRS,

ACCOMPANYING

THE PRESIDENT's MESSAGE TO CONGRESS, AT THE OPENING OF ITS

SESSION IN DECEMBER, 1861.

CIRCULARS.

Mr. Black (Secretary of State) to all the Ministers of the United
States-------------------------------------------------- Feb. 28, 1861.
Mr. Seward (Secretary of State) to all the Ministers of the United
States-------------------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - March 9, 1861.
Mr. Seward to ministers of the United States in France, England,
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Belgium, Italy, and Denmark-------- April 24, 1861.
INSTRUCTIONS AND DESPATCHES.
PRUSSIA.
Mr. Seward to Mr. Judd, (extract)---------------------------- March 22, 1861.
Mr. Wright to Mr. Seward, (extract)-------------------------- May 8, 1861.
* to same, (extract)------------------------------------- May 15, 1861.
*me to same (extract)------------------------------------- May 26, 1861.
* to same (extracts)------------------------------------ June 8, 1861.
Same to same, (extract with accompaniments)------------- ----- June 25, 1861.
*on Schleinitz to Baron Gerolt----------------------------- June 13, 1861.
* Seward to Baron Gerolt--------------------------------- July 16, 1861.
*on Gerolt to Mr. Seward--------------------------------- July 17, 1861.
Mr. Judd to Mr. Seward, (extracts)--------------------------- July 2, 1861.
Same to same, (extract, with an accompaniment)--------------- July 24, 1861.
* Seward to Mr. Judd------------------------------------ July 26, 1861.
* to same, (extract) ---------------------------------- -- Aug. 12, 1861.
Mr. Judd to Mr. Seward, (extract)---------------------------- Aug. 27, 1861.
* to same, (extract)------------------------------------- Oct. 10, 1861.
* Seward to Mr. Judd ------------------------------------ Oct. 21, 1861.

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Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams-------------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - April 10, 1861.

Mr. Dallas to Mr. Seward, (extracts).--------------------------- March 22, 1861.

Same to same, (extract)--------------------------------------- April 5, 1861-

Same to same, (with an accompaniment)----------------------- April 9, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- April 27, 1861.

Mr. Dallas to Mr. Seward, (with an accompaniment).............. May 2, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extracts)-...-- - ---------- ---------- May 17, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams, (extracts)--------------------------. May 21, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract).---------------------- ---. May 21, 1861.

Same to same, (extracts).------------------------------------- May 31, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- June 3, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract)--------------------------- June 7, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams, (with an accompaniment).----...----. June 8, 1861.

Same to same------------------------------------------------ June 8, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward--------------------------------- ---. June 8, 1861.

Same to same, (extracts)-------------------------------------- June 14, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- June 19, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extracts). -------------------------- June 21, 1861.

Same to same, (extracts)------------------ -------------------- June 28, 1861.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- July 1, 1861.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract).--------------------------- July 12, 1861.

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GREAT BRITAIN–Continued.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams----. ------------------------------- - July

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extracts).---------------...--------- July

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- July

Same to same------------------------------------------------ July

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (with accompaniments)...-----------. Aug.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- Aug.

Same to same------------------------------------------------ Aug

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract)--------------------------- Aug.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- Aug.

Same to same---------------------------------------------- - Aug.

Same to same---------------- ------------------------- ------ Aug

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (with accompaniments)..... ---...----- Aug.

Mr. F. W. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------- Aug.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (with accompaniments)...------------. Aug.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams, (extracts).-------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sept.

Same to same------------------------ --------------------- --- Sept.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extracts, with accompaniments).----. Sept.

Same to same (with accompaniments)-...--...--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sept.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams, (with an accompaniment).----. ------ Sept.

Same to same, (with an accompaniment)----------------------- - Sept.

Same to same----------------------------------- ------ - - - - - - . Sept.

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract, with accompaniments)-...----. Sept.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- Sept.

Same to same------------------------------------------------ Sept

Same to same-------------------------------------------- ---- Sept

Same to same----------------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---- Sept

Mr. Adams to Mr. Seward, (extract).--------------------------- Sept.

Same to same------------------------------------------------ Sept.

Same to same, (extract, with accompaniments)------------------ Oct.

Same to same, (with an accompaniment)------------------------ Oct.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- Oct.

Same to same-------------------------------------- ---------- Oct

Same to same------------------------------------------------ Oct

Mr. Seward to Lord Lyons-(circular)--------------------------- Oct.

Lord Lyons to Mr. Seward------------------------------------- Oct.

Same to same------------------------------------------------ Oct.

Mr. Seward to Lord Lyons------------------------------------ Oct.

Same to same----------------------------------------------- - Oct.

Same to same, (circular).---- --------------------------------. Oct.

Lord Lyons to Mr. Seward----. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Oct.

Mr. Seward to Lord Lyons------------------------ ------------ Oct.

Lord Lyons to Mr. Seward, (with an accompaniment).----. ------ Oct.

Mr. Seward to Lord Lyons------------------------------------ Oct.

Lord Lyons to Mr. Seward----------------------------------- - Oct.

Mr. Seward to Mr. Adams------------------------------------- Nov.

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