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all the necessary facts before school opens. Learn particulars from those who bring the youngest children to you.
Be particular how your pupils handle their books and slates, and especially about the manner of taking them out and putting them away.
Teach at the first recitation the manner of going to and from classes; even if you take all the time allotted, it is better to settle it at once; also the proper bearing in the class.
The harmony of your school-room depends largely upon these simple things, and pronounce you a good or a bad disciplinarian.-N. Y. School Journal.
AT WORK.- The schools are again at work. How? The merry boys and happy girls of the holidays have come back once more from their freedom and fun to the work of the school-room. To some few the return has been a joyous one; it has not been so to the majority. It should be a willing return, but, in some cases, even this has not been experienced. Why? A few words of advice to teachers may
A not be out of place at this time. You feel better now than in those weary days before the vacation came. Why? Because you have had more fresh air, and less school anxiety. Show your good sense by continuing to take all the agreeable exercise possible in the open air, before school, during the recesses, and after school; and leave your cares and worries behind you at four o'clock. Do not even grow too anxious about the progress of your pupils, lest the strain on your nervous system should unfit you for the accomplishment of the very work you so earnestly wish to do. You feel strong and enthusiastic
Do not waste all your strength in a month. Work systematically and avoid rapid exhaustion. You had some difficulties in connection with the discipline of your class last session. Most of them arose from some defects in yourself. Avoid them now. Go to school with a cool head, a warm heart, and a properly nourished muscular, mental, and nervous system, and you will have no great difficulties in managing your bad boys. You travelled in ruts in teaching some subjects last session. Widen them, or get out of them altogether. Read the best educational work you can find; take a good practical educational journal; and take counsel as much as possible from the best teachers you are acquainted with.-The Teacher.
He who would amass virtues, leaving out the guardian virtue humanity, is like a man who leaves a precious dust exposed to the wind.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
POWERS OF DISTRICTS.
Q. Is a district set off liable to taxation in the old one, if it does not organize and vote taxes itself ?
A. No, not unless the territory is first set back. The town board should see that it does organize (Sec. 414), or set it back.
Q. Can a town board annex to an order setting territory into a district, the condition that the order shall cease to have effect after five years?
A. No. Such a condition is null and void.
Q. Can a district vote more than the five per cent. named in the law passed last winter (chap. 118), if that is thought insufficient to maintain five months' school?
A. A district should not violate one law in order to obey another one. It would be better to vote the maximum five per cent., and ask legislative relief, if found necessary.
Q. Can the district fix the day on which school shall begin? A. No. That is left to the board, and must from the nature of the case be dependent upon such arrangements as can be made with the teacher employed.
Q. Can a majority of the district empower a majority of the board to put a certain teacher into the school, without having any board meeting?
A. Most certainly not. The district may express its opinion or wish, if it likes, but the board selects the teacher, and must proceed according to law in determining the question.
Q. If the district votes to pay but $22, can the director and treasurer hire the clerk's daughter and pay $24, when as good a teacher can be had for $18? And if they do, must they not pay the surplus themselves ?
A. A district cannot fix the exact wages to be paid, nor forbid the board to hire a certain person. It is not well, as a rule, to hire a relative of the board, but the other two members of the board may honestly believe that she is better worth $24 than other applicants are $18. Still, a board will, if discreet, not fly too much in the face of the expressed opinion of the district. But they incur no liability by doing what they deem to be for the þest interest of the district, in a
Q. Can a district turn off a teacher, hired by the board contrary to their wishes ?
A. The district can do no such thing. If the people feel aggrieved, they can ask the board to dismiss the teacher, if deemed incompetent, or unfit to teach the school; they can ask the county superintendent to annul her certificate, if prepared to show that she ought not to hold one; they can, as a last resort, refuse to send to school, but they cannot proceed by “Lynch " law.
Q. If the clerk resigns, can the other two members of the board appoint one of themselves?
A. Certainly not; that would not fill the vacancy, and would be unlawful.
Q. If the district votes not to admit foreign pupils, can the board admit them?
A. The board has no such power.
Q. Can the board give a note, and the treasurer pay it when presented, instead of an order?
A. The board has no power to do business in that way. The treasurer is authorized to pay out money only on orders duly drawn.
Q. Can a board authorize a teacher to deprive pupils of recess for an entire half day as a punishment?
A. That would not be proper. A pupil for a time may reasonably be denied recess with the rest, for misbehavior at recess, but should be allowed to go out by himself.
Q. Can the board do business, if one of them refuses or neglects to attend?
A. Certainly, if due notice has been given; but it may not always be best to proceed, when one member is absent.
TEACHER'S CONTRACT. Q. Is it absolutely necessary that a copy of the teacher's certificate be attached to the contract?
A. Not to make the contract valid; the direction of the law should nevertheless be complied with.
Q. When a teacher has been engaged, is the board afterwards at liberty to depart from the usual form, in drawing the contract?
A. Not to the extent of imposing unusual obligations or restrictions, not named in the original agreement.
Q. Can the clerk and treasurer hire the clerk's minor son to teach the school, the director protesting against it?
A. This looks too much like the two members named hiring the clerk himself, which would be an unlawful proceeding. It is doubtful if such contract with the minor son of the clerk could be enforced. It would certainly be against public policy for such contracts to be made.
Q. May a teacher report disobedient pupils to the board instead of of punishing them?
A. It is expected that the teacher will ordinarily secure obedience himself. There may be cases where it would be as well to report the pupil, or to suspend him and report the case to the board.
Q. Has a principal power to require the other teachers to attend teacher's meetings, and to recite on certain subjects dictated by him?
A. This is not exactly his province. The board, as a part of the rules, may require teachers' meetings, and so inform teachers in making contracts. The rules may appropriately give to the principal the oversight and direction of the exercises; but he is not in an arbitrary manner to treat the other teachers as children, nor attempt any coercion.
Q. What is to be done with dog taxes collected in territory not organized into school districts?
A. The money might as well be kept till the territory is organized.
Q. Do the words “nor thereafter," in section 440, cover adoptions made before the law was so amended ?
A. It is to be held that they do — that it was the intention of the law to give additional pretection against frequent or unnecessary changes in text-books.
Q. If a man's own boy is away from home, can he send another boy to school free of tuition, from another district, in his place?
A. The district may good-naturedly take no notice of his sending, if it likes, but he cannot claim any right to send the foreign pupil.
Q. If a loan from the state is proposed, must the notice required in section 427 be given, to three-fourths of the legal voters?
A. Yes, this what the land commissioners require.
THE MONTH AT HOME.
The past month has not been an exciting one. The negotiations with the Utes, which were mentioned in our last, are still in progress. A special commissioner of the Interior Department, General Charles Adams, succeeded in procuring the release of the captive women and children of the White River agency, October 21. A commission consisting of Gen. Adams, Col. Hatch, of the army, and Ouray, the friendly head chief of the Utes, is now taking testi. mony among the Indians, at Los Pinos Agency, with a view to fix the responsibility for the outbreak, and secure the surrender of the murderers. At the present writing, the prospect of success is not very encouraging, though a peaceful solution of the difficulty is still to be boped for.
The general success of the Republican party in the November elections is chiefly remarkable for the fact that the majorities, in several of the states, are larger than at any time since the war, and for the indication which this is supposed to afford of the public temper in regard to "the solid South."
The reception of Gen. Grant at Chicago, in connection with a reunion of the Army of the Tennessee, has attracted a large share of public attention for the past fortnight, and by the added evidence which it gives of the great popularity of the only living ex-President, may have a considerable effect on the political history of the next year.
The death, within the month, of two such men as Senator Zach. Chandler and Gen. Hooker (Fighting Joe), is worthy of note, although history may not place either upon its highest pinnacles.
Last, but not least, Secretary Sherman's balance sheet for October shows & decrease in the national debt of over ten million dollars ($10,352,906 62). The decrease sioce August 1st amounts to over sixteen millions. All the bonds now matured having been called in, the Secretary of the Treasury is now buy. ing up the 6's of '81 in the market. Ten millions of them were lately purchased at a premium of seven per cent.
THE MONTH ABROAD.
The British movement in Afghanistan seems at a stand. Gen. Roberts remains in Cabul, occupied with severe measures for punishing the massacre of the em. bassy. The expected movement upon Herat has not yet commenced.
Meanwhile England finds abundant matter for alarm and controversy in the land troubles, at home and in Ireland. It looks much as if the only settlement will be found in a radical revision of the whole system of land tenures. We hope to give a special article on this subject next month.
A récent understanding between Germany and Austria, amounting to an alli. ance, is exciting the fears and anger of Russia. England would like to join the alliance, but cannot afford to forfeit the friendship of France.