now treated with outrage by the mob. The barbarity and injustice of the mountain party in the convention soon afterwards arrived at its utmost pitch. On the 31st of May, 1793, Roland was denounced, with others of the Girondist party. Roland endeavoured to conceal himself, by advice of his wife; who did not suspect her danger, but she was arrested soon after, imprisoned, and guillotined. Roland on this left the asylum of a friend, who had hitherto concealed him; and, repairing to a spot on the great road leading to Rouen, he there committed suicide, leaving a paper containing the following lines:– Whoever you may be that find me lying here, respect my remains; they are those of a man who devoted his whole life to being useful, and who died, as he lived, virtuous and honest.' Roland, BREche DE, a remarkable fissure in the central part of the Pyrenees, above the village of Gavarnie. A wall of rocks, from 300 to 600 feet in height, extends in the form of a crescent, convexly towards France. In the middle is a breach, 300 feet wide, said, by tradition, to have been made by the famous Roland. The great mountain of Marbore rises over it like a citadel, and the elevation is so great that it has been for ages without a trace of vegetation. ROLANDRA, in botany, a genus of the polygamia segregata order, and syngenesia class of plants; natural order forty-ninth, compositae. comMon cAL. consisting of distinct flosculi, between each of which are short squamae, the whole forming a round head : PARTIAL cal. bivalved. cor. small and funnel-shaped, the tube small as a thread, the laciniae short and acute. The stamina are five; the style bifid. It has no other seed vessel except the partial calyx, which contains a long three-sided seed. Of this there is only one species, viz. R. argentea ; a native of the West Indies, found in copes and waste lands. ROLL, v. a., v. n., & Fr. and Teut. rolle; Roll'ER, n. s. [n. s. W Arm. roll; Welsh rhol. Roll'ING-PIN, To turn or move any Roll'ING-PRESS, yo. by application of Roll'Y-pooly. the different parts of its surface successively to the ground; to move in a circle; form by rolling into masses; form in a stream or by a current or a course of pres– sure; be moved as a cylinder or circle; run or revolve; be tossed to and fro; fluctuate; be moved by violence: as a noun substantive, the act of rolling or state of being rolled; the thing rolled; a round body; mass; in particular a rolled writing or sheet of MS.; public writing; register; office : a roller is, any thing revolving on its own axis; bandage: rolling-pin, a pin on or by which paste is rolled: rolling-press, the press of copper-plate printers: rolly-pooly, a corruption of “roll ball into the pool,' a game. Mr. Thomson says from Fr. rouler poulie, to turn a pulley; or Ital. ruollo, a waltz.

Darius made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up. Ezra vi. 1.

Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre” Mark xvii. 3.

He fashioned those harmonious orbs that roll In restless gyres about the Arctick pole. Sandys.

Beasts only cannot discern beauty; and let them be in the roll of beasts that do not honour it. Sidney. His chamber all was hanged about with rolls And old records, from ancient times derived. Spenser. Cromwell is made master O' th' rolls, and the king's secretary. Shakspeare. These signs have o: me extraordinary, And all the courses of my life do shew, I am not in the roll of common men. Id. The roll and list of that army doth remain. Dates. Grind red lead, or any other colour, with strong wort, and so roll them up into long rolls like pencils. Peacham. Of that short roll of friends writ in my heart, There's none that sometimes greet us not. Donne. When a man tumbles a roller down a hill, the man is the violent enforcer of the first motion ; but, when it is once tumbling, the property of the thing itself continues it. Hammond. Heaven shone and rolled her motions. Milton. Thou, light, Revisitest not these eyes, which roll in vain, To find the piercing ray, and find no dawn. Id. Wave rolling after wave in torrent rapture. Id. Down they fell By thousands, angel on archangel rolled. Id. The rolls of parliament, the entry of the petitions, answers, and transactions in parliament, are extant. Hale. Our nation is too great to be ruined by any but itself; and, if the number and weight of it roll one way upon the greatest changes that can happen, yet England will be safe. Temple. I'm pleased with my own work, Jove was not more With infant nature, when his spacious hand Had rounded this huge ball of earth and seas, To give it the first push, and see it roll Along the vast abyss. When thirty rolling years have run their race. Please thy pride, and search the herald's roll, Where thou shalt find thy famous pedigree. . Id. In human society, every man has his roll and station assigned him. L'Estrange. The long slender worms, that breed between the skin and flesh in the isle of Ormuz and in India, are generally twisted out upon sticks or rollers. Ray on the Creation. To keep ants from trees, encompass the stem four fingers' breadth with a circle or roll of wool newly plucked. Mortimer. They make the string of the pole horizontal towards the lathe, conveying and guiding the string from the pole to the work, by throwing it over a roller. Moron's Mechanical Exercises. Reports, like snow-balls, gather still the farther they roll. Government of the Tongue. Large rolls of fat about his shoulders clung, And from his neck the double dewlap hung. Addison. Here tell me, if thou dar'st, my conscious soul. What different sorrows did within thee roll. Prior. Busy angels spread The lasting roll, recording o we said. Id. Let us begin some diversion; what d'ye think of roulipoulu or a country dance? Arbuthnot. By this rolling, parts are kept from joining together. Wiseman. Fasten not your roller by tying a knot, lest you hurt your patient. Wiseman's Surgery. , The pin should be as thick as a rollingpin. Wiseman. 'Tis a mathematical demonstration, that these twenty-four letters admit of so many changes in

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their order, and make such a long roll of differently ranged alphabets, not two of which are alike, that they could not all be exhausted, though a million millions of writers should each write above a thousand alphabets a-day, for the space of a million millions of years. Bentley. A small Euphrates through the piece is rolled, And little eagles wave their wings in gold. Pope Twice ten tempestuous nights I rolled, resigned To roaring billows and the warring wind. Id. Storms beat, and rolls the main; Oh beat those storms, and roll the seas in vain ' Id. In her sad breast the prince's fortunes roll, And hope and doubt alternate seize her soul. Id. The eye of time beholds no name So blest as thine, in all the rolls of fame. Id. Lady Charlotte, like a stroller, Sits mounted on the garden roller. Swift's Miscellanies. Listening senates hang upon thy tongue, Devolving through the maze of eloquence A roll of periods, sweeter than her song. Thomson.

Roll, in law, signifies a schedule of parchment, which may be rolled up by the hand. In these schedules all the pleadings, memorials, and acts of court, are entered and filed by the proper officer; which being done, they become records of the court. Of these there are in the exchequer several kinds, as the great wardrobe roll, the cofferer's roll, the subsidy roll, &c. Roll, MUSTER, that in which are entered the soldiers of every troop, company, regiment, &c. As soon as a soldier's name is written down on the roll, he is punishable if he desert. A Roll of PARchMENT denotes the quantity of sixty skins. The ancients made all their books up in the form of rolls; and in Cicero's time the libraries consisted wholly of such rolls. Rolls, MASTER of the. See MASTER. Rolls Office, is an office in Chancery Lane, London, appointed for the custody of the rolls and records in chancery. Rolls of PARLIAMENT are the MS. registers or rolls of the proceedings of our ancient parliaments, which, before the invention of printing, were all engrossed on parchments, and proclaimed openly in every county. In these rolls are also contained many decisions of very difficult points of law, which were frequently in former times referred to the decision of that high court. ROLLE (Michael), an eminent French mathematician, born at Auvergne, 1652. His great mathematical skill procured him a place in the Academy of Sciences, and a pension. In 1690 he published a treatise on Algebra, and died in 1719. ROLLI (Paul) was born in Rome in 1687. He was the son of an architect, and a pupil of the celebrated Gravina. An intelligent English nobleman, having brought him to London, introduced him to the royal family as a master of the Tuscan language. Rolli remained in England till the death of queen Caroline his protector. He returned to Italy in 1747, where he died in 1767, in the eightieth year of his age, leaving behind him a very curious collection in natural history, &c., and a valuable and well chosen library. His principal works first appeared in London in 1735, in 8vo. They consist of odes in blank verse, elegies, songs, &c., after the man

ner of Catullus. There is likewise a Collection of Epigrams, printed at Florence in 1776, in 8vo., and preceded by his life by the abbé Fondini. There are likewise by him translations into Italian verse of Milton's Paradise Lost, London, folio, 1735; and of Anacreon's Odes, London, 1739, in 8vo. ROLLIN (Charles), a justly celebrated French writer, was the son of a cutler in Paris, and was born in 1661. He studied in the college Du Plessis, in which he obtained a bursary, through the interest of a Benedictine monk of the White Mantle, whom he had served at table. After having studied humanity and philosophy at this college, he applied to divinity three years at the Sorbonne; but he did not prosecute this study, and never rose in the church higher than to the rank of a priest. He afterwards became professor of rhetoric in the same college; and in 1688 succeeded Horson, his master, as professor of eloquence, in the royal college. In 1694 he was chosen rector, and continued in that office two years. By virtue of his office he delivered the annual panegyric upon Louis XIV. He made many very useful regulations in the university; and particularly revived the study of the Greek language, which had been much neglected. He substituted academical exercises in the place of tragedies. Upon the expiration of the rectorship, cardinal Noailles engaged him to superintend the studies of his nephews, who were in the college of Laon; and in this office he was employed, when, in 1699, he was with great reluctance made coadjutor to the principal of the college of Beauvais. This college was then a kind of desert, with very few students, and without any manner of discipline: but Rollin's great reputation and industry soon repeopled it, and made it a flourishing society. In this situation he continued till 1712; when, the controversy between the Jesuists and the Jansenists drawing towards a crisis, he fell a sacrifice to the prevalence of the former. Father le Tellier, the king's confessor, a furious agent of the Jesuits, infused into his master prejudices against Rollin, whose connexions

with cardinal de Noailles would alone have suf

ficed to have made him a Jansenist; and on this account he lost his share in the principality of Beauvais. His edition of Quintilian with his

own notes appeared in 1715, in 2 vols. 12mo, with an elegant preface, setting forth his method

and views. In 1710 the university of Paris chose Rollin again Rector : but he was displaced in about two months by a lettre de cachet. The university had presented to the parliament a petition, in which it protested against taking any part in the adjustment of the late disputes; and their being congratulated in a public oration by Rollin, on this step, occasioned the letter which ordered them to choose a rector of more moderation. He now composed his treatise upon the Manner of Studying and Teaching the Belles Lettres, which was published in 2 vols. in 1726, and two more in 1728, 8vo. The work was exceedingly successful, and its success encouraged its author to undertake his Histoire Ancienne, &c., or Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians and Grecks, which he finished in 13 vols. 8vo., and published between 1730 and 1738. Rollin was one of the most zealous adherents of deacon Pâris; and, before the enclosure of the cemetery of St. Medard, this distinguished character might have been often seen praying at the foot of his tomb. This he confesses in his Letters. He published also lesser pieces; containing different Letters; Latin Harangues, Discourses, Complimentary Addresses, &c., Paris 1771, 2 vols. 12mo. He died in 1741. ROLLING, the motion by which a ship rocks from side to side like a cradle, occasioned by the agitation of the waves. Rolling, therefore, is a sort of revolution about an imaginary axis passing

through the centre of gravity of a ship: so that

the nearer the centre of gravity is to the keel the more violent will be the rolling motion; because the centre about which the vibrations are made is placed so low in the bottom that the resistance made by the keel, to the volume of water which it displaces in rolling, bears very little proportion to the force of the vibration above the centre of gravity, the radius of which extends as high as the mast heads. But, if the centre of gravity is placed higher above the keel, the radius of vibration will not only be diminished, but an additional force to oppose the motion of rolling will be communicated to that part of the ship's bottom which is below the centre of gravity. It may, however, be necessary to remark that the construction of the ship's bottom may also contribute to diminish this movement considerably. Many fatal disasters have happened to ships arising from violent rolling. Rolli NG, in gardening and husbandry, the operation of drawing a roller over the surface of the ground, with the view of breaking down the clods, rendering it more compact, and bringing it even and level. This is a practice that becomes necessary both upon the tillage and grasslands, and which is of much utility in both sorts of husbandry. In the former case, it is made use of with different intentions, as for the purpose of breaking down and reducing the cloddy and lumpy parts of the soil in preparing it for the reception of crops. It is also of great use in many cases of light soils, in rendering the surface more firm, even, and solid, after the seed is put in. It is likewise found beneficial to young crops in spring, in various instances. It is said, by the author of Practical Agriculture, that in the cases of stiff, heavy, and adhesive soils of different kinds, it may frequently be made use of with the first-mentioned intention with very great advantage; but it should only be employed when such lands are tolerably dry, for, when drawn over the ground under the contrary circumstances, little benefit can be afforded in the way of pulverisation, while much mischief must be produced by the poaching of the horses, and the plastering the earth round the implement. But, by using it in the manner just directed, all the lumpy or cloddy parts of the surface soil may be effectually crushed and reduced into a fine powdery state, fit for the reception of the seed. It is likewise supposed that, in cases where lands have been left rough after ploughing, for the purpose of more effectually destroying weeds, it may be of utility, by being

employed before the harrows, to give them more power in laying hold of and reducing the soil, and by the pulverisation that it affords, and the more perfect retention of moisture that it causes, in consequence of the surface being rendered more close and compact, the seed-weeds are

produced more abundantly, and more readily

destroyed. It is likewise in these last methods, says Mr. Donaldson, that it proves so highly beneficial in all cases where grass-seeds are sown; as well as by the equality and smoothness of surface that are thereby produced; and it is well observed, by the same writer, that if no other benefit were derived from rolling lands in tillage than smoothing the surface, even that in harvest is of material consequence, more especially where the crops are cut down with the scythe, which is general in most of the southern districts of the kingdom, and which the increasing scarcity of laborers must soon, in all probability, introduce into those of the north. See RURAL Economy. Rolling Tackle, a pulley or purchase fastened to that part of a sail-yard which is to the windward of the mast, in order to confine the yard close down to the leeward when the sail is furled: it is used to prevent the yard from having too great a friction against the mast in a high sea, which would be equally pernicious to both. ROLLIUS (Reinhold Henry), a learned German philologist, who, in 1779, published a very useful work, entitled The Lives of the Philosophers, Orators, Poets, Historians, and Philologers. ROLLO, the conqueror of Normandy, was a Norwegian duke, banished from his country by Harold Harfager, who conquered Norway in 870, on account of his piracies. He first retired with his fleet among the islands of the Hebrides to the north-west of Scotland, whither the flower of the Norwegian nobility had fled for refuge when Harold had become master of the kingdom. He was there received with open arms by those warriors, who, eager for conquest and revenge, waited only for a chief to lead them on. Rollo, setting himself at their head, sailed towards England, which had been long a field open to the violence of the northern nations. But the great Alfred had some years before established such order, in this part of the island, that Rollo, after several fruitless attempts, despaired of forming there such a settlement as should make him amends for the loss of his own country. He pretended therefore to have had a supernatural dream, which promised him a glorious fortune in France, and which served at least to support the ardor of his followers. The weakness of the government in that kingdom, and the confusion in which it was involved, were still more persuasive reasons. Having therefore sailed up the Seine to Rouen, he immediately took the capital of that province, then called Neustria, and making it his magazine of arms, he advanced up to Paris, to which he laid siege in form. This war at length ended in the entire cession of Neustria, which Charles the Simple was obliged to give up to Rollo and his Normans, to purchase a peace. Rollo received it in perpetuity to himself and his

posterity, as a feudal duchy dependent on the crown of France. The - interview between Charles and this new duke gives a curious picture of these Normans; for Rollo would not take the oath of fealty to his sovereign lord any other way than by placing his hands within those of the king, and absolutely refused to kiss his feet, as custom then required. It was with great difficulty he was prevailed on to let one of his warriors perform this ceremony in his stead; but the officer to whom Rollo deputed this service suddenly raised the king's foot so high that he overturned him on his back: a piece of rudeness which was only laughed at, to such a degree were the Normans feared and Charles despised. Soon after Rollo was persuaded to embrace Christianity, and was baptised by the archbishop of Rouen in the cathedral. See NonMANDY. ROLLOCK (Robert), the first principal of the college of Edinburgh, was the son of David Rollock of Powis, near Stirling. He was born in 1555. He was sent to St. Andrews, and admitted a student in St. Salvator's College. His progress in the sciences was so rapid that he had no sooner taken his degree of M.A. than he was chosen a professor of philosophy, and read lectures in St. Salvator's College. The magistrates of Edinburgh, on the erection of the university in that city, in 1582, made choice of Mr. Rollock to be principal and professor of divinity. In 1593 principal Rollock and others were appointed, by the states of parliament, to confer with the popish lords. In 1595 he was nominated one of the commissioners for the visitation of colleges; to enquire into the doctrine and life of the masters, the discipline used by them, the state of their rents, &c., and to report to the next assembly. In 1597 he was chosen moderator of the general assembly—the highest dignity in the Scottish church: and he had the influence to get some great abuses redressed. Being one of fourteen ministers appointed to take care of the affairs of the church, he procured an act of the legislature, restoring to the prelates their seats in parliament. He had to reconcile to this measure, not only such ministers as abhorred all kinds of subordination in the church, but likewise many of the lay lords, who were not fond of such associates in parliament. He died in Edinburgh on the 28th of February, 1598, aged forty-three. His works are, 1. A Commentary on the first Book of Beza's $. 2. Another on the Epistle to the Ephesians, 4to., Edinburgh, 1598. 3. A third on Daniel, 4to., Edinburgh, 1591. 4. Analysis of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, 8vo., Edinburgh, 1594. 5. Questions and Answers concerning the Covenant of Grace and the Sacraments, 8vo., Edinburgh, 1599. 6. A Treatis on Effectual Calling, 8vo., Edinburgh, 1597. 7. A Commentary on the Epistles to the Thessalonians and Philemon, 8vo., Geneva, 1597. 8. A Commentary on fifteen select Psalms, 8vo., Geneva, 1598. 9. A Commentary on the Gos

el of St. John, with a Harmony of the Four o upon the Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus Christ, &c., Geneva, 1590. 10. Sermons on Several Places of St. Paul's Epistles, 8vo., Edinburgh, 1598. 11. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Colossians, 8vo., Geneva, 1602. 12...Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 8vo., Edinburgh, 1605. 13. Analysis of the Epistle to the Galatians, 8vo., London, 1602. 14. A Commentary upon the First Two Chapters of the First Epistle of Peter, 8vo., London 1603. 15 and 16. A Treatise on Justification, and another on Excommunication, both in 8vo., London, 1604. All these works, except the sermons, are in Latin.

ROLLRICH, or RollBich Stones, an ancient monument in Oxfordshire, in the parish of Chipping Norton, near Long Compton, supposed to be the remains of a British temple.

ROLPAH, a town of Hindostan, capital of a district of the same name, in the province of Nepaul. Little more is known about it than that it is situated in the mountains, in a woody country, and governed by a chief who pays an annual tribute to the Nepaul rajah. Long. 82° 5' E., lat 29° 22' N.

ROM'AGE, n. s. mo ; Swed. rom. multuous search; clamor. RUMMAGE, which see.

This is the main motive Of this post haste, and romage in the land. Shakspeare.

ROMAGNA, the former name of a province of the states of the church, bounded by the Adriatic, the duchy of Urbino, Bologna, and the Ferrarese. It is about forty-five miles in length and thirty in breadth, and fertile in corn, wine, olives, and silk. Its pastures are also good in certain parts, and in others there are minerals. The capital is Ravenna.

ROMAINE (Rev. William), a popular English divine, born at Hartlepool, in Durham, in 1714; and educated first at Hertford College, Oxford, and afterwards at Christ-church, where he made himself master of the Hebrew, and became a zealous Hutchinsonian. He was ordained in 1737, and in 1738 attacked bishop Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses. In 1738, he preached a sermon before the university against the bishop's doctrine. In 1739 he was chosen lecturer of St. Dunstan's West, and in 1740 preached at St. George's. He was now become so popular that the churches were crowded. He was next appointed professor of astronomy at Gresham College, but soon resigned it. In 1764 he was elected rector of St Andrew's, and St. Anne's, Blackfriars. He died in 1765, with the character of a powerful preacher. . His works, consisting of sermons and practical tracts, were published in 8 vols. 8vo, 1766. He also pubiished Calasio's Hebrew Concordance, it 4 vols. folio, 1749

Fr. ramage, or Goth. roA tumult; a bustle; a tuCommonly written RoMAN Catholicism. By the church of Rome, as distinguished from Christian churches of other denominations and communions, is meant that great body of professed Christians who, united to the bishop and see of Rome, “ground their faith upon the authority of the church, as on a rule of faith, sure and unerring.’ Popery, Papal superstition, Papists, and Romanists, are among the various appellations that have been given, in different ages, to the system of this society and its members, who commonly view them as terms of reproach. , Catholics, or Roman Catholic Christians, is the only name by which they designate themselves; but the members of other communions cannot recognise their claim to the first of these; and Roman Catholics is now that by which they are designated among us, in law and parliament. We therefore adopt it as at once fair to other parties and to themselves inoffensive.

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That the church of Rome is, in regard to her descent, apostolical, and was, for some centuries, a pure as well as a true church,Protestants readily admit; but that she was either the mother or mistress of all churches, or that she was, at any time, the only true church, they deny. In the following historical view of the Roman Catholic church we shall consider it in its three different states, as it subsisted and still subsists, from the period of Constantine's conversion down to the present time. The first, which may be characterised as the period of its rise, reaches from the establishment of the Christian religion under Constantine down to the establishment of the papal power, in 606, when pope Boniface III. assumed the title of Universal Bishop; or, 756, when Pepin, king of France, invested pope Stephen II. with the temporal dominion of Rome and the neighbouring territories, upon the ceasing of the exarchate of Ravenna. The second period embraces the interval from the close of the first down to the Reformation. During this time Rome maintained a supremacy and dominion over the minds and consciences of men, to which all Europe submitted with implicit obedience. The establishment and long uninterrupted continuance of this power may justly be considered as among the most extraordinary circumstances in the history of mankind. The third period refers to the decline of this tremendous power, which was first weakened by the Reformation, and has since been gradually yielding to the influence of the Reformed doctrines and the general diffusion of knowledge among the nations of the earth.

I. Rise of the papal power—The progress of Christianity, during the lifetime of its divine founder, was confined within narrow bounds. The Holy Land was alone the scene of his labors and of his life and death; no sooner, however, had he ascended to his throne, than, in the plenitude of his divine power and grace, he sent his Holy

Spirit to qualify the apostles to be the heralds of his glorious gospel to the world. In the execution of their mission they encountered various difficulties; exposed to poverty, humiliation, persecution, they always realized the prediction of their master that they were sent “as sheep among wolves.' The hand of power, however, could not crush them, nor the fear of death arrest their zeal; in due time the once infant church had daily added to its members, character, rank, wealth, and influence; so much so as to excite the apprehensions both of the existing priesthood and magistrates; who endeavoured to overwhelm the rising cause by most cruel persecutions—remewed at intervals, with more or less severity, during the reigns of all the Pagan emperors. It was found in vain, however, for their enemies to kindle and rekindle the flames of persecution; like the children of Israel, in the days of Pharaoh, “the more they afflicted them the more they multiplied and grew, until they diffused themselves through all ranks of society, and acquired such an influence, even in matters of state and government, as materially to assist or depress the various competitors for the Roman empire. The extraordinary occurrences of the life of Constantine produced an entire change in the whole of the Christian profession. Its friends were now no longer called to endure patiently the hatred of the world, to take up their cross and press after a conformity to Christ in his sufferings, and through much tribulation to enter his kingdom: so long as the Christians were persecuted by the heathen, on account of their faith and practices, they were driven to the gospel as their only source of consolation and support; but such is the depravity of human nature, that, when they long enjoyed an interval from persecution, they became worldly and even profligate in their morals and litigious in their tempers. But now that the restraint was wholly taken off by Constantine, churches endowed, and riches and honors liberally conferred on the clergy; when he authorised them to sit as judges upon the consciences and faith of others, he confirmed them in the spirit of this world,—the spirit of pride, avarice, dominion, and ambition; the indulgence of which has, in all ages, proved fatal to the purity and happiness of the professed followers of Christ. Now they began to new model the Christian church, the government of which was as far as possible arranged conformably to the government of the state. The emperor himself assumed the title of bishop, and claimed the power of regulating its external affairs; and he and his successors convened councils in which they presided, and determined all matters of discipline. The bishops corresponded to those magistrates whose jurisdiction was confined to single cities; the metropolitans to the proconsulsor presidents of provinces; the primates to the emperor's vicars, each of whom governed one of the imperial provinces. This constitution of things was an entire departure from the order of worship established, under divine direction by the

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