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name, signifying, by this outward
mayest raise him up from this bed of
I have endeavoured, in the above prayer, to avoid the old controversy of the proper number of sacraments altogether. I only take the words as I find them in the Epistle, which appear to me very remarkable, and which must mean something, and therefore all silence upon them in the service appears ill-judged, to say the least. Judging by the Catechism, it would seem, that the church does not limit the number of sacraments to two, but only says, that there are "two only as generally necessary to salvation," without giving any information of the number of special and temporary occasions for introducing others, founded, like unction, upon a special and unequivocal apostolic command, issued, as Protestants must allow, and, to use the very words of this apostle, in the Acts of the Apostles, because “it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to him ;" and, according to the two subsequent answers, it would seem that the church acknowledges more than two sacraments, though only two generally necessary, seeing that a sacrament is described as "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace," (like Confirmation, for instance, or ordering priests ;) for we must not suppose that St. James, inspired as we believe him to have been, intended the anointing to be a mere idle and indifferent ceremony (nec Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus.) Therefore it seems, at least, to be a lesser kind of sacrament, and it being commanded, may be, though not generally necessary, of the first importance to those who study the Scriptures, seeing that we have no licence to wilfully violate any precept, which appears to be still binding, of an inspired apostle. And let it not be said, that I am favouring the Roman Catholic doctrine, which, after all, is an argument unworthy of an enlightened age; for to refuse to follow any in what we think them right, is as bad as any thing we can bring against Popery, as we ought rather to rejoice when we can, in any particular, conscientiously "speak the same thing with them," (Rom, xvi. 17; 1 Cor. i. 10;) for the doctrine of extreme unction, confining the ceremony to the most desperate cases in both words and practice, is almost as contrary to my view of the passage, as omitting to perform it altogether. There are two more remarks to make, to look at the question honestly in all its bearings. First, this epistle was addressed to the "twelve tribes, &c. ;" and we know, by the 15th chapter of Acts, that St. James was the proposer of that distinction which so soon prevailed between Jewish and Gentile converts. We find, however, by St. Paul's epistles, that this could never have been intended as more than temporary expediency; in fact, that he himself threw every discouragement upon the Jewish Christians retaining the distinction. The fair way, therefore, to put it is, I conceive, to determine the force of the injunction in question by the date of the epistle; if it is of very early date, to hold the command of the apostle to be one of those things not binding upon Gentile Christians. Now it is notorious that St. James is universally admitted to have written this epistle for, among other reasons, the purpose of removing some misconceptions caused by St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews, in which those ceremonial prejudices of the Jews, which were for a time countenanced by that apostle, are shown to be ill-founded, as well as those passages to which St. James appears to have alluded. Hence it appears, that the command to anoint is a new one, comparatively; and, therefore, binding upon believers generally, as a command of an inspired apostle, whatever is the case with regard to the question of general necessity as a sacrament abstracted from the consideration of our obligation to obey an apostle in all things applying to our circumstances. The second remark is, that some may say, that the spiritual meaning of St. James is merely to administer the consolation of religion to the sick brother; but do they consider to what this leads them, carried to its legitimate length? Doubtless there is always a spiritual meaning to be sought for; but I am inclined to think,
THE ORDER FOR BURIAL OF THE DEAD.
¶ Where there is a choir, funerals
are to be choral, except when the
¶The Priests and Clerks, &c. (as
Pastoral symphony. (Handel.)
Forasmuch &c. (as in Prayer
in Prayer Book, only omitting "or¶Note.-The preceding portion of
say," which is above provided for,)-I am the resurrection, &c. (Croft.)
After they are come into the church, shall be chanted these two Psalms. (Beethoven.)
Lesson (as in Prayer Book,)
¶ After the Lesson shall one of these anthems be sung.
Lord, let me know mine end. (Greene.)
Hear my prayer. (Kent.)
I have set God. (Blake.) ¶ In going to the grave shall be played,
¶ Dead March in Saul, (Handel.)
When they are come to the grave, and the corpse laid near it, shall
Man that is born &c. (Purcell.) ¶ After which, while the corpse is being lowered, shall be played, if the grave, or vault, is in the church,
the Service is to be omitted at the
I heard a voice &c. (Purcell.)
"We humbly submit ourselves to
ing thee, that when it shall be thy
¶ If there be a second anthem, it
Anthem. If we believe. (Boyce.)
When the ear heard him. (Han-
that the instances of solely one meaning to a passage, are not so numerous as, at first sight, we might suppose. If, for instance, it should be said, that the command to the rich to sell all they had and give to the poor, meant that those strong in faith should sacrifice all those unworthy carnal affections, which had a tendency to become stumbling-blocks in the way of the poor, or those whose belief is less confirmed, there appears no objection to the interpretation; but yet no sober divine would deny that it also meant, that the rich in worldly possessions should be very charitable under all circumstances, and even ready to renounce the whole of their wealth, if, from any special circumstances which might arise, they could not retain it without violating some divine precept. And then, again, are we prepared, as in consistency we must be, if we attach only that spiritual meaning not literally expressed, to the command of St. James-are we prepared to say with the Scotch Presbyterians, that the prostration of the heart, and not of the body also, is what is required in prayer; (and therefore, accordingly, alter all our Rubrics about posture ;) or say, as they might as cogently say, that their imitation of the exact posture of the Pope himself, in their zeal to avoid the posture of Roman Catholics, is lying on couches (which is the sitting mentioned in the Gospel) in their hearts? Again, there is a fervent, effectual, prayer "not to be seen of men," which is mental, apparently dumb ; yet, unless we will come to Quakerism, we must contend that this mode of prayer was never intended for public worship. I have not wilfully omitted any thing candour required, and I now leave the subject to the reader's judg
racter of the deceased, and the last two verses to be here always omitted. ¶ If there be no second anthem, the last Amen shall be musical. (Cooke, vocal only.)
At the funerals of such public characters as the words are suit
able to, shall, after the Valedic-
But his name &c.
¶ While the mourners are retiring, the Dead March to be repeated.*
FORMS OF PRAYER TO BE USED AT SEA.
Some think that the phraseology in this service about burials, more philosophically correct than in our Land Service. I only mention it, but cannot say I am not contented with the latter, for, admitting the theory, which appears to me to be rational, the effect is very remote; and it is not meant, that the phrase |
"earth," or "dust," is appropriate to every possible change. The reader will find in Hooper's Medical Dictionary, under the word "Putrefaction," the theory to which I allude, and which seems to me perfectly reconcileable with the doctrine of St. Paul in the Burial Lesson.
THE THREE POLITICAL FESTIVALS.
My preceding suggestions are a the alterations I would sufficient indication of the extent of
It is of such consequence that the anthems on particular days should be consistent with the rest of the services, that I will here mention a few, which occur to me, not meaning to shut out future talent; of which, I believe, we should have a vast deal brought to light were music more encouraged in our churches; but, as I have done in the Burial Service, taking what I find. For Palm Sunday there is, Who is this?" (Arnold,) and some of Handel's Messiah; much of the latter for Passion Week; for Easter Day and two following days, "If we believe," (Boyce,) "The trumpet shall sound," (Handel,) "If God be for us,” (ditto,) “I have set God, (Blake ;) for Low Sunday, any of the Easter Day ones, and "Ascribe unto the Lord," (Travers ;) which last does for the Epiphany, and for several of the fixed and accidental principal feast days; When the Son of Man," (Kent,) should also not be forgotten on Low Sunday; or "In the beginning,” (ditto,) for the opening of the year; or "Hear my prayer," (Kent or Stroud,) for Ash Wednesday. For Whit-Sunday, &c. there is, "The Lord gave the word," (Handel,) and "The Lord is my light," (Boyce,) and "O Lord, thou hast searched me out," (Croft ;) for Ascension Day there is "God is gone up," (Croft,) and "When the Son of man," (Kent ;) the same for the Sunday after; for Easter Eve, Luther's Hymn, (arranged by Hawes, I believe,) "I know that my Redeemer liveth," (Handel,) "The trumpet shall sound," (ditto;) for Advent and Christmas, several parts of the Messiah, and appropriate Anthems by Wyse, Purcell, and Green; and for Trinity Sunday I would propose, as the words of an Anthem, the 129th, 130th, 138th, 144th, 151st and 152nd verses of the 119th Psalm, as well as "I was in the Spirit," (Blow,) which applies to St. John's Day and several other festivals likewise. For fast days, and other times, there are the graver Anthems of Boyce, Purcell, Weldon, &c. There is also a most magnificent Anthem, "The Lord is very great," (Beckwith ;) and we must not omit, The King shall rejoice," (Handel,) "O Lord, grant the King," (Croft,) "Give the King," (Boyce,) and the excellent Anthems of a man as excellent as his music, Mr. Attwood, for the King's birth day; or Thanksgiving Anthems of Croft, Hayes, and others. And for Consecration of New Churches, there is Boyce's "I have surely built thee an house."
MARTYRDOM OF KING CHARLES THE FIRST.
men, who, not observing the punctuation, have read this Service on the Sunday, which was never intended. I therefore suggest the follow
What I have just said of the preceding Festivals, applies here also. As to Mr. Price's suggestion about the Hymn "Righteous" &c., I cannot agree with it. The questioning. seems to me to turn upon this, "Have the verses in this hymn one exclusive meaning only, or more than one?" I think the latter. But the first Rubric, which is not strictly incorrect, I would alter, for I have known a surprising number of clergy
¶ If this day shall happen to be Sunday, the fast shall be kept on the next day following, on which latter day this form of prayer shall be used for that year, and not on the Sunday.
FORM OF PRAYER,
TO BE USED IN CATHEDRALS, OR OTHER CHURCHES,
UPON OCCASIONS OF SUCH
FESTIVALS FOR CHARITABLE PURPOSES,
A FULL ORCHESTRA IS PROVIDED.
The Second Lesson shall be 1 John
Then shall follow the Apostles'
Sing unto God, (Croft.)
¶ Then shall follow the Prayers, as in ordinary Morning or Evening Service, after which shall be performed an Anthem suitable to the charity.
Then shall follow the Sermon, after which shall be performed, Dettingen Te Deum. (Handel.)*
* Most musical people will, I think, agree with me, that placing the Dettingen Te Deum earlier would prevent full justice being done to other composers, whose works, however excellent, all want that peculiarity of body more easily felt than described. It is also more in accordance with my proposed other services.
Then shall the Priest, or Bishop,
Glory be to the Father, &c.
Then the Minister, at the altar,
shall dismiss the people with this blessing:
The peace of God, &c.
Note -The Coronation Anthem (Attwood) may also be performed, with the common choir, at the beginning of the Service, upon occasions of the Convocation attending Divine Service, or other solemn occasions, as the Ordinary shall think becoming.
FORM OF ORDAINING OR CONSECRATING OF AN ARCHBISHOP, OR BISHOP.
After the Collect this Forasmuch as some persons may be misled from the first of these Epistles being in this Service, it is thought fit to explain, that this ancient selection was because of the qualifications contained in it, which the highest in the ministry should be reminded to cultivate as well as the lowest, and not on account of the word "bishop," which here means a bishop, or elder, of the second class, Timothy being what we now call a bishop, (which appears still more clearly from the Epistle to Titus,) who would be more correctly styled an apostle, or angel; that is to say, messenger, (for in the original language the same word means both,) being the appellation used by the apostle St. John. In the first period of
Rubric is suggested:
Christianity, all presbyters were styled bishops; but soon afterwards, from a feeling of modesty, the apostles of the different churches wished to sink a title held by their inspired predecessors; and so they took one of the titles, which before all elders had in common, and the bishops of the second class sunk that title, and called themselves, in general, only elders. Perhaps, as an inspired" apostle calls, in Scripture, uninspired men apostles, this change of appellation was not praiseworthy ; but it is thought right that the fact should be mentioned, as the faithful might otherwise attach more importance to the arguments of Presbyterians than they really deserve.