PREAMBLE. , Wo, the people of the United Stales, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and" secure the blessing's of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, <io ordain and establish this Constitution for tfre United States of America,

ARTICLE J. Congress and its Powers. Section 1. AH log-i*-,] a Live, powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United State,?, widen shall consist of a Senate and House of Represser] la iives.

See. 2. The Ijovlsq of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most Representatives, numerous branch of the State Legislature. No person shall be Mow CiLOseu. a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-, five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, wben elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall bo chosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several Status which may bo included within this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be de^ermi-ned by adding to the whole number of free persons, including these bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shalj be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in bueta manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand but each State shall have al least one Representative, and until soih enumeration shall foe made, the State of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providehce Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, Ne*v-Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware mi<*} Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina five. South Carolina five anj Georgia three. "When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, *ho tixecu-tive authority thereof shail issue writs of: election to fill such vacancies. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 3. The Senate ivf the "United States shall be composed of tw,o Senators from carfi State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator .shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall he Bf niters, Chw'cr, assembled in conseouence of the first election, they shall be Organization, Im- divided as equally as may be into three clas cs. The seats of nekvicnust 'dials, the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at -the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third ciaa«, at the expiration of the sixth year, so tb-*J one-third may he chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive 1 hereof may make temporary appointments .until the next meeting of tim~ Legislators, which .shall thou fill *uch vacancies. No person steall be a Senator who shaM not "liavc attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a Wtizcri of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that Sta4e 'for which be shall be chosen. The Vice-President of the United Stales' shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the.y be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President Tiro tempore in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall i-xerr-Lse the office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the solo 'power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judgment in cases -of impeachment whall" not extend further than to removal from olfiee and disqualification to hold and <-ri ioy any office of honor, trust or profit und<*r the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to Jaw.'

Sec 4 The time*, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and -Reorescntaiiv^s shall bo prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but L' the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such

Elections to Congress— regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.. Assembling*» The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,

and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they phall by Jaw appoint a different day.

Sec r> Each h-ou^e shall be tire judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day Senarato Powers and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent of Each Hou»«. members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. Each house may determine the rules of Its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. Bach house shall keep a Journal of its proceedings. aW from Urn© to time publish the same, excepting euoh parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on anykmestlon shall, at the desire of one-ami of those present, be entered on the journal. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other plaoe than that In whicli the two housea shall be sitting:.

Sec.1 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for

their seiviees, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the

\ United States. They shall, In all ease% except treason, felony

Compensations and and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their

Privilege*. attendance at the session of their respective houses, and In

1 going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or

debate In either house they shall not be questioned In any other place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed *to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either housp during his continuance In office.

Sec. 7. All bills far raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. Every bill which shall have passed the House Revenue Bill*—Procedure— of-Representatives and the Senate shall, before it

President's Action. becomes a lav/, be presented to the President of the

United Slates; if he approve he shalUsign it, but if not he shall return It, with his objections, to that house in which It shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it, If after such reconsidoration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by twa-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shalJ be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after It shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless Congress by their adjournment prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate ahd House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, Imposts

and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general

welfare of the United States; but ail duties, imposts and

General Powers of excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; to bor

Congress. .row money on the credit of the United States; to regulate

commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes; to establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform law3 on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United Slates; to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures; to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States; to establish postofuces and postroads; to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by secui{)£ for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their rospective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the Suprme Court, to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the hrgb seas, and offences against the laws of nations; to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning ruptures on land and watery to raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; to provide and maintain a navy, to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and expel invasions; to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the mihtla, and for governing such part of them as may be employed In the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; to exercise exclusive legislation In all cases wbatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State In wh*ch the same shatl be. for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper Cor carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Unitsd States, or in any department or officer thereof.


See. 9. The migration or importation of .such persons as any of the State? now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress/prior „...,,. to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but,a tax

>.imitations of its or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten

Powers.' dollars for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas'

corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in eases of rebellion-r lTsvanion the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law"sh'oJl-be passed. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless'in properi ion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. No tax rv duty shall foe laid on articles exported from any State. No preference .shall be .uivsn by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, * lear or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of *J.hc receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to lime. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding an office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any Kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.

Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters <-•£ m<tr«voe and reprisal; coin" money; emit bills of credit; make anything but geld and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any UiuHatiouft of bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation State Powers, of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection jaws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws' shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shaii. without the consent of Congress, pay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ship?: ui war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact-with another Scat-, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, «-»r-'p su- h irrtmia^nt dangtr as will not admit of delay.


The President and His Powers.

.-'<-*■• i•">".',": Th< cxrrjtivo power shall be vested in a President of the United State*- of .America. He .shall hold his during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the .Electoral Oolleg*1—KligibUity. pame term, be elected as follows:, Bach State shall Sttt-oessioB, Compensation. appoint- in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direcx, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but nr> Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persona, of whom one at least shall iiot be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of ail the persons voted for and of L!>e number of votes for each; which list they .shall sign and certify, and transmit/sealed, to the seat of (government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House, of Representatives, open ail the certificates, and the votes shall th-en be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall bo the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have .such a majority, and have an equal number of'votes, then the House of Reprr-senfatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them President, and if no person have a majority then from the five, highest on the list the said House shall" in like manner choose the President. But in choosing ■the President, the yoi<-S .shall be taken by States, the representation from each 'Slate having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States. a*id a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having Uie greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But it there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any nerson be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirtyfive years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States, m case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the 6said office, the same shall devolve on ■the Viec-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death designation or inability both of the President and Vice-President, declaring Shat office? shall- then act as Presiden v and .,uch officer shall act accordinjiy -anti CONSTITUTION OF 1HE UNITED STATES. * 31 |


States, oY any of them. Before he enters cm the execution ©f his office he shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear .{or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Gffice of President of,, the United States and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and d^'end the Constitution of the United States.'

Sec. 1 The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States; when called into • the actua* service of the United States, he may require the

Military, Civil and opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the Treaty-n&kin* executive departments, upon any subject relating to the Powew, duties of their .respective offices, and he shall have power to

grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except In Cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and*consent of the Snate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur, and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of Vhe Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and -consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States -whose appd'ihtments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be. established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such j inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill ail vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which s^all expire at the end of their next session. * *

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he

* shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordiJMtessagres and Estra nary occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and ,: Sessions. in case of disagreement between them, with respect &> the

* ■' time of adjournment he may adjourn them, to such time as hie. shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and the public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all of4 the officers of the United States.

Sec. 4. The President. Vice-President and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and Removal by Im- conviction of treason, bribery or other high, crimes and peachment. misdemeanors.

A1STXCI.K III. Supreme Courts and Judicial Powers. Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress xnay from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of tho Supreme and inferior courts* shall hold their offices during good behavior., and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the. laws of the United States, and treaties made or which shall be made, under their authority-, to all cases affecting Limits of Judicial ambassadors, other public ministers %ind consuls, to ail cases 1'ower. of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to

which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between- a State and citizens of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same. State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the. other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. The. trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, «wd such trial shall be held in the State where the said crime shall have been committed, but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Sec. i>. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or' in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony Treason and Its of two witnesses to the same overt act. or on confession in open Punishment. court. Tho. Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life, of the person attainted.

ARTICXTS IV. Rights of States and Citizens. ■• Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the publicacts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Jaws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and "proceedings shall be proved, and I lie effect thereof.

See. 2. The citizens of each Stale Khali be entitled- to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. A person charged in any Stale with treason, felr»n>, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and Equal Rights of be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive. Citizens. authority of the State from which ho fled, be delivered up to be

removed to the. State, having jurisdiction of the crime. No person held to service or labor in ou^ State, under th^ laws thereof, escaping into

_. . _ , t _.

anpttier, shall, Id consequence of. any law or regulation therein, be disehargeafrt>m such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the .party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Sec. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Uniofc; but no

new State shall be formed! or erected, within the jurisdiction of any other State;

nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States,

Creation of New "or part of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the

States. States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress

.shall have power to dispose of and make all needfml rules and

regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to ihe United

States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any

claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the'Legislature, or of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. ARTICLE V. Amendments to Constitution. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a Action by Congress— * convention for proposing amendments, which .in either case Ratification. shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this

Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of threefourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth .section of the first article; and that no State, without its concent, shall be deprived of )ts equal suffrage in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI. Supreme Authority of Constitution. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the confederation. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made? under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of tin* land; and the judges in every State shall b<* bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required a? a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. * Ratification of Constitution. The ratification of the convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying^tho Nine States Suf- same.

ficient to Establish. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the States present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the" United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. . t GEO. "WASHINGTON, President and Deputy from Virginia. New-Hampshire— JOHN LANGDON, NICHOLAS OILMAN. Massachusetts— NATHANIEL GOfiHAM, RUFluS KING. f Connecticut—WM. SAML. JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN. "New-York—ALEXANDER HAMILTON. New-Jersey—WILL. LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLY, 'WM. FATERSON, JONA





'ronr*ia—WILLIAM FEW, ABR. BALDWIN. Georgia Wi^am xr,^ , Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

AMENDMENTS. (The first ten amendments were proposed at the first session of the 1st Conc-rP«Hi of the* United States, which was begun and held at the city of New-York on iiaroh 4 1789 and were adopted by the requisite number of States—1 vol. Laws of U S» P. 72. They together constitute a Bill'of Rights) The following is the preamble' and resolution; Congress

Guaranty of Repub, Ikasa Government.

Debts and Treaties-
Official Oaths—No
Religious Test.

of the United States begun and held at the

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