and relieve Pravadi, leaving gene- of this movement, and still beral Krassoffskito continue the siege lieving that he had only a detachof Silistria. The march was diffi- ment to deal with, sent forward a cult and toilsome, from the nature body of 3000 men to attack it; of the country and the state of the but, as the Russian columns came roads; but the Russian general up one after another, he learned conducted his operations with so the truth of his critical situation, much caution and skill, and the There seemed, however, surprised Turks displayed so much careless- as he certainly was, to be no hesiness or inexperience, that Die- tation in his measures, and no bitsch effected his junction with confusion among his men. He Roth on the 10th of June, in brought forward his whole army; front and towards the left of the they were formed in regular squares grand Vizier, without the latter of infantry, and well disposed cobeing aware of his approach. At lumns of cavalry, supported by the same time he rapidly occupied artillery. The numbers on both the direct road from Pravadi to sides were nearly equal, and an Shumla, thus cutting off the re- obstinate and sanguinary conflict treat of the Vizier, who was not ensued. At the very beginning, even aware of the vicinity of the count Diebitsch found himself Russian troops, till they were in obliged to bring up his reserve, possession of all the defiles on his and throw it into the hottest of left and in his rear. He was, the fire. By this movement he therefore, now in a position, in gained some superiority; but, so which his defeat would leave far from having made any imShumla defenceless; for the only portant impression on the Turkish roads, by which a defeated army army, the grand Vizier, after a could retire upon it, were in pos- murderous combat of four hours, session of the enemy..

disappointed the operation of the The grand Vizier, imagining at morning, forced open the road to first that his communications were Shumla by Marasch, and retired merely threatened by a body of a short distance to an advantagegeneral Roth's army, instead of ous position covered by a wood. The being already actually cut off by Russian commander, instead of the whole force of count Diebitsch, disturbing him in that movement, broke

up from Pravadi for the de- took advantage of this interval of files of Kulertscha, hoping to de- repose to substitute fresh troops stroy this corps. While he was for those which had been princidoing so, count Diebitsch, on the pally engaged, and to form a new morning of the 11th of June, with reserve. Having completed these a view to pass still farther to the arrangements, he immediately rerear of the Turkish army, made a newed the attack. The first disreconnoissance with 10,000 men, charge of his artillery blew up and some artillery, in the direction some of the Turkish ammunition of Marasch; an operation which, waggons, and this circumstance if it had succeeded, would have hastened a retreat on which the completely cut off the grand Vizier had already determined. Vizier from all access to Shumla. As the Russian columns came on The latter, seeing the importance in quick time, the Turks, after one general discharge of their artillery, The first step taken by count took to flight in the direction of Diebitsch after the battle of Marasch, leaving behind them Kulertscha, was to offer negotiafifty-six cannon, with all their tions for peace. On the 14th of baggage and ammunition. Wbat June he despatched M. Fonton, they abandoned favoured their re- councillor of state, with a flag, treat; for the road lay through a and a letter addressed to the forest, and the baggage and am- Vizier, stating, that, under the inmunition waggons, which blocked structions of his imperial master, it up to such an extent as to he was desirous to use his victory render it necessary to employ a as a means of terminating the war detachment of infantry to re- by negotiation, and that the move them, impeded, or rather bearer of the letter was authorized prevented, immediate pursuit. The to enter into such explanations as Russians stated the loss of the the Vizier might require. To the Turks at 2000 men killed, and Russian commander's assumption 1500 prisoners. They admitted of victory the Vizier answered, in that the battle was sanguinary, the true spirit of Ottoman theoand the fire of the enemy well logy and philosophy, “as victory directed, and that their own loss and defeat are at all times events amounted to upwards of 2,200 which depend on the Divine will, privates killed and wounded, be- it is beyond the power of man to sides sixty-one staff and superior change what Providence has willofficers. During the two follow- ed; and in the battles which took ing days; different divisions of the place, first at Dewno, and afterRussian army were employed in the wards on the return from Pravadi, pursuit, but they did not advance and at the defile of Kulertscha, far, and effected nothing beyond the result of the engagement, and dispersing some scattered bodies the victory, is manifest to the eyes of troops with which they fell in, of both parties; and as the loss, and carrying some redoubts which which was afterwards caused by the Turks had not only found the explosion of the powder-wagmeans to throw up on their re- gons, can be ascribed only to an treat, but which they defended accident brought about by the with great obstinacy. The grand will of Heaven, it is entirely conVizier got into Shumla, and thus formable to the order of things, the most important object of count and to the decrees of Providence, Diebitsch's very brilliant maneu- to be prepared at one time for vre was not gained. It was unpar- victory, at another for defeat.” donable in the Turkish commander He expressed his anxiety to see to have suffered himself to be turn- peace concluded on terms advaned, and to have even allowed the tageous to both empires, but adenemy to occupy the direct road ded, that as he had long been to Shumla behind him; but, having commander-in-chief and governor been taken in the rear, surprised, of Rumelia, and was wholly ocand almost surrounded, to have cupied in that country with miliescaped utter annihilation showed tary affairs, he was not acquainted great firmness and bravery in the with the state of things; and it men, and skill in the commander, would therefore be good to send Vol. LXXI.


M. Fonton thither, or to fix a day their arms and baggage, and the on which he might confer with flotilla on the Danube,

The siege Turkish commissioners.

had lasted only about six weeks, Count Diebitsch now took up and had cost the conquerors above a position which enabled him to 1200 men in killed and wounded. observe Shumla, although he did The surrender of Silistria having not regularly invest it, or make set'at liberty the besieging army, any preparations for a siege : he count Diebitsch, instead of underwas waiting till the fall of Silistria taking the doubtful enterprise of should enable him either to ad- reducing Shumla, thought himvance, or undertake the reduction self strong enough to leave before of Shumla. The operations against it a force sufficient to prevent any Silistria had, in the meantime, danger from its garrison, while been proceeding with great effect; he himself, with the main body of though the garrison, consisting of the army, should pass the Balkan, 8000 men, made a more obstinate and descend into the plains of resistance than had been antici- Adrianople on the road to the pated. By the middle of June, the capital. Accordingly, general batteries of the third parallel had Krassoffsky was ordered, with the been mounted, and their fire was greater part of the besieging corps, so effective against the artillery of immediately to join the army asthe fortress, that the garrison sembled before Shumla. The time could reply to it only by mus- employed, however, in taking posketry. More batteries were erect- session of Silistria occupied some ed, and the mining operations days, so that the last division of were commenced. Early in the his troops did not join the main morning of the 30th of June, a army till the 15th of July. The mine was sprung, the effect of movements, preparatory to passing which was, to open a practicable the mountain, had already begun. breach in the body of the fortress, The troops were to advance in two and two other mines were ready columns. The right, consisting to be sprung. The Pacha, now of 14 battalions, and two regiconsidering the place to be no ments of cossacks, under general longer defensible, and having Rudiger, took the direction of lost all hope of being relieved by Kiuprikioi. The left, consisting any operations of the Vizier, pro- of 18 battalions, 16 squadrons,

a capitulation. The Rus- and two regiments of cossacks, sians refused the terms which he had orders to force the passage demanded, and, while they were over the Kamtschik. Besides explaining to him theonly terms on this, a reserve of 22 battalions, which it would be granted, the fire eightsquadrons, and two regiments from the works of the besiegers of cossacks, under count Pahlen, was kept up, and preparations were was to follow the columns at a inade for mounting the breach. short distance, in order to support These demonstrations produced either of them, if necessary. Gethe Pacha's acceptance of the neral Krassoffsky, with 23 batconditions which were offered; talions, 40 squadrons, and four he and his garrison surrendered regiments of cossacks, remained themselyes prisoners of war, with near Shumla, to observe the grand

Vizierand cover the line of opera- enemy had there a body of 3000 tions of the troops that were to men, which could not be attacked cross the Balkan.

in front without great loss. He The attention of the Vizier had therefore sent two battalions and been exclusively directed to the a regiment of cossacks directly defence of Shumla, which he sup- towards Kiuprikioi to engage the posed to be seriously threatened, Turks in front, while he himself, and he had consequently left the with his main force, resolved to lower Kamtschik bare of troops. turn their position, and pass the As the Turks thus favoured the river to Cralamaly, five or six versts Russian design, it was necessary lower down. · On the 17th, he to keep them in error as long as appeared before Cralamaly, where possible. With this view the he surprised a corps of about 1000 march of the troops from the camp Turks, who dispersed at his apbefore Shumla always took place proach, leaving their camp and in the night, in profound silence, three pair of colours. During the and not till the troops from Silis- night he constructed a bridge, tria supplied the vacancy. In and crossed the river, and, on the this manner, in the night of the 18th, marched against Kiuprikioi. 13th, the place of general Roth's Jussuf, a Pacha of two tails, who corps was supplied by the first commanded in Kiuprikioi, atdivision of general Krassoffsky's tempted to resist, and drew up his corps; and the place of general Ru- men in order of battle on an emidiger was occupied, in the night of nence near the village; but, after the 15th, by the second division. a mere show of resistance, they The reserve of count Pahlen did not fled before a shot had been fired, leave the camp before Shumla, or a man had fallen. While the till the night of the 17th. The right had thus made good the Vizier offered no interruption to passage, the left, under general these movements before Shumla, Roth, had crossed the river in a but contented himself with send. similar manner on the night of ing out, on the 18th, in the morn- the 19th, by throwing bridges ing, 1000 cavalry, who cautiously across below the fortified points, stationed themselves in sight of and thus turning and dispersing the out-posts of the cossacks. the Turks stationed on the op

Meantime the columns of gene- posite bank. On the 20th, he rals Roth and Rudiger had pro- pushed his advanced guard to ceeded towards the Kamtschik. Palisbano ; on the 21st, geneThis river, which is not a broad, ral Rudiger reached Erketsh,-but a rapid stream, with few fords, both of them situated on the ridge and those dangerous, was the first of the Balkan : and the gates of obstacle to be overcome to reach that mountain bulwark of the the Balkan. The Turks had Ottoman empire were

at last thrown up intrenchments, pro- passed by an European invader. vided with artillery, at every ac- On the 21st of July, the Russian cessible point.

army began to descend the southGeneral Rudiger, as he ap- ern declivity, and encountered no proached Kiuprikioi, where he serious resistance. Count Diewas to cross, learned that the bitsch, by the rapidity of his movements, gave the enemy no Chengi and the village of Chuluko, time to recover from the panic, where they remained, uncertain with which his passage of their what resolution to take. However, natural rampart seemed to have having learned the occupation of struck them. At various points Bourgas, they directed their march small detached bodies presented towards Aidos, where they arrived themselves; but they either with- on the 24th of July, drew so soon

as the Russians On the 25th, general Rudiger appeared, or, after a short con- was directed to march upon Aidos, flict, were dispersed. On the 22nd, and take a position within four or the

army reached Mesembri, five versts of that place, till the which immediately capitulated; troops should be concentrated. 300 men, who occupied a strong General Roth was to advance by intrenchment, having thrown a forced march, and establish down their arms, and surrendered himself in a double line behind at discretion. On the 24th, the troops of general Rudiger. general Roth's advanced guard The corps of count Pahlen was made the more important capture to march upon Rumely-Kioi and of Bourgas. Its garrison marched Aidos, to within a distance of out to meet him, but, being routed, about four versts of the latter the Russians entered the place place. The Pachas thought the along with the fugitives, while the moment favourable to the execuTurks continued their flight in tion of their plan. They resolved disorder through the opposite to attack the advance of the invadgate.

ing army, before it could be supThe passage

of the Balkan had ported by the troops which were been so successfully concealed coming up. The Turkish cavalry, from the Vizier, that it was not and a division of infantry, made a till the 21st of July, four days sortie from Aidos, and attacked after the march of the Russians Rudiger's cossacks, who retired on from before Shumla, that he de- the position. Gen. Rudiger assailtached a considerable corps to ed the Turks in front, and detachreinforce the post of Kiuprikioi, ed, at the same time, a brigade of for the purpose of opposing the hulans who took them in flank. In passage of the Kamtschik, two an instant, the Turkish advanced days after that passage had ac- guard was overthrown, and obliged tually been effected. These troops to retreat in disorder to Aidos. marched from Shumla under the The Russians pursued the enemy, command of Ibrahim, a Pacha of and, on arriving in front of the three tails, and Mehemed, a Pacha place, found a corps of Turkish of two tails, who had recently ar- infantry, from 6000 to 7000 men rived from Constantinople to take strong, posted in the rear, and on the command of the regular troops the flank of the town. These were of the Turkish army. When they immediately attacked, and at first arrived on the Kamtschik, they defended themselves obstinately ; learned that the Russians had al- but, being forced back within their ready taken and occupied the in- works, and into the narrow streets trenchments on that river. Upon of Aidos, they were on all sides this, they directed their march on beaten in detail, and put to the

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