sword. The regiments stationed Adrianople. General Krassoffsky behind Aidos dispersed, and fled executed the former of these along the footpaths leading to the operations, by forcing his way Balkan, and in the direction of from Marasch through Eski-StamKarnabat. Count Diebitsch fixed boul, and to the westward of it, his head-quarters in Aidos on the thereby blocking up the central 26th of July; having thus, in a road which runs to Adrianople. course of uninterrupted success, by Karnabat. The Vizier atconquered the difficulties of the tempted to interrupt the operamountain defiles.

tion, by attacking Krassoffsky, in From Aidos as a centre, the the vicinity of Marasch; but, Russian general commenced a after some hard fighting, he was new series of operations, sweep- compelled to fall back upon ing, within a few days, with the Shumla, having lost about 500 different corps of his army, an men. In pursuance of the second arch approaching to a semicircle, project, general Sheremetief, of the northern point of which rested the 7th corps, proceeded from on Shumla, and the southern on Karnabat about the 29th of July, Adrianople. On the 26th of towards Jambol. On the road July, the seventh Russian corps thither, with one brigade of hulans had taken possession of Karnabat, and some cossacks, he fell in with a valuable central point among a corps of no less than 15,000 the mountains, nearly west of of the enemy, commanded by Aidos, and about one third of the Halil Pacha. Notwithstanding way between the latter post, and the disproportion of numbers, the Selimno. At the same time, Russian cavalry attacked and count Pahlen, with another corps, overthrew the Pacha’s army, had been directed to occupy drove them into the town of JamKarabanar, forty miles south of bol, and burnt the Turkish camp. Aidos, and to push his advanced The extreme distrust of themguard a day's march farther selves, and broken spirits of the south to Faki, thus reconnoitring Ottomans, were manifested by a towards Adrianople. These orders shameful flight from Jambol, under were executed, without any serious the apprehension that 100 Cosresistance on the part of the sacks, whom general Sheremetief Turks. Next, with a view to cut left before the town, as a corps of off the communications of the observation, when he retired to Vizier in Shumla with Adriano- join his head-quarters at Karnaple, and to establish himself on bat, were but the advanced guard an inner line of posts in a direc- of the whole Russian army, which tion nearly parallel to the Da- was the next day destined to nube, but in the nature of a third attack them. The Vizier,--seeing parallel towards Constantinople, that his continued occupation of count Diebitsch combined a Shumla, did not impede the double movement, one imme- triumphant progress of the enemy, diately against the rear of Shum- that he could not hope to make Ja, the other against the town of any impression on the force comSelimno and the great road lead- manded by general Krassoffsky ing south from it, by Jambol, to who watched him, since that force was now in communication with courage to make any considerable the main army, and feariug that “stand.” The trophies of the it would soon be impossible for day consisted in nine pieces of canhim to find his way out of the non, and 300 prisoners, together fortress, to any point not occu- with large supplies of ammunition piedby Russian troops,-left it, in and provisions which were found the beginning of August, with the in the town. intention of marching to Sliono, After enjoying a day's repose, or Selimno, a town standing at the army again advanced through the foot of the circuit of hills, a country which was difficult in which form the last heights of the itself, but in which there was no Balkan. He had to take a cir- enemy to oppose its progress. cuitous route from Shumla, by On the 19th of August it arrived the western road, for no other in sight of Adrianople, the second was now open. Count Diebitsch, city of the empire, containing a having received intelligence of population of 80,000 inhabitants, this movement, resolved not to of whom about one half were prevent the Vizier from arriving at Mussulmen. The troops, col. Selimno, but prepared to attack lected for its defence, conhim when he should have reached sisted of ten thousand regular init. Having received a reinforce- fantry, besides cavalry, and some ment of 12,000 men, which had thousands of men hastily assembled been brought by water to Size- from the neighbouring country. boli, he was enabled, without The ground was intersected by withdrawing the garrisons of any deep ditches and gardens, weil of the places which he had occu- calculated for an obstinate resistpied, to form an army of nearly ance. The position of the bat30,000 men, with which, on the teries was well chosen, but some 9th of August, he marched to of them were incomplete ; for the Dragodanova, about fifteen versts Turks had not anticipated so distant from Selimno. He gave rapid an advance of the invading his troops a day's repose, in order army into the interior. Surprise not to prevent the junction of the seemed to have disabled them; Vizier with the forces collected in for, though three great roads were the town, where the Vizier's son had still open for their retreat, they already arrived with the van-guard. made no preparations for withThe Turkish forces, having joined, drawing, and shewed no dispotook up a position in front of the sition to fight. The Russian town, and there the Russians troops had scarcely taken up attacked them on the 12th. The their positions, when deputies contest was neither long nor arrived from the Pachas in the doubtful. Almost on the first city to propose a capitulation. attack, the Turks abandoned They were informed, that they their fortifications, as well as the must deliver up their arms, artiltown, and fled in all directions. lery, standards, provisions, and The work of the Russians was ammunition, every thing, in short, easy; for, according to their own belonging to the Ottoman governaccount, the “terror of the enemy ment; that, on those conditions, was so great, that he had not the the Pachas and their troops

would be allowed to return to non were mounted on its walls, their homes, provided they did surrendered, so soon as preparanot take the road to Constantino- tions were made for an attack. ple. The irregular troops, and Thus the victorious Russians were the inhabitants, were also required established in the very heart of to lay down their arms, to remain the finest of the Turkish Euroin Adrianople, and continue to pean provinces; one armed band follow their trade, and all lawful resting on the Euxine, and the and pacific business, under the other, on the shores of the Mediprotection of the laws, and the terranean : and in each of these existing courts of justice. They seas was a Russian fleet, with were warned, that, unless these which they could constantly comterms were accepted by nine municate. Before them lay Cono'clock next morning, the city stantinople, at the distance of only would be stormed. Before that a few easy marches ; between hour on the 20th had arrived, the them and the capital there was no Turkish commissioners returned, army which they could dread ; and endeavoured to procure more the population of the country, favourable conditions. The an- through which they had hitherto swer was an order for the columns marched, and which contained of attack to advance. The Turks numerous adherents of the Greek immediately yielded, and the church, had evinced no disposiRussian army, without firing a tion to oppose their progress by shot, was put in possession of popular movements; and subAdrianople. On the same day, a mission alone could now yield the division of the army occupied Kirk- Sultan any hope of saving even Kilissa, a considerable town to the the fragments of his European north-east of Adrianople, between empire. the latter city and the Euxine, While fortune was thus declarand pushed on its vanguard as ing against the Turks in the far as Lulle-Bourgas, on the Western portion of their empire, road to Constantinople.

disasters were accumulating with The success of the Russian fleet scarcely less rapidity in the Northhad kept pace with that of the army. eastern portion of their Asiatic The ports of the Euxine fell one territories. In the latter, however, after another; admiral Greig the offensive operations with which having, in the course of a few the campaign opened were their days, made himself inaster of Vas- In the beginning of March, silikó, Agathopolis or Agtepoli, they attempted, before the main and Ainada. To the south, gene. body of the army of count Pasral Diebitsch extended his opera- kewitch could arrive to its assisttions even to the Mediterranean. ance, to recover Akhalzik, which From Adrianople he directed a had been taken from them in the body of men against Enos, situated preceding year. A Turkish corps at the mouth of the gulf of the of 20,000 men established themsame name, taking possession, at selves in the suburbs, made an the same time, of the intervening assault, and carried the first wall ports of Demotico and Jpsala. of the town; but, being ultimately Enos, though more than fifty can repulsed, they sat down to block



ade it. Paskewitch immediately the passage of the mountain, was marched a strong detachment of approaching to support the Pacha. his troops to the relief of the place. The Russian commander resolved A portion of the besieging army to fight him before he could reach disputed with them, for several the camp; and, having taken a days, the passage of the Koura, position which rendered it imposbut at last it was effected by the sible for Hagki to send assistance Russians, after a silent night to the Seraskier, he attacked the march, crossing the river above latter on the 30th of June, and the point occupied by the enemy, completely defeated him. Having and thus turning his position. accomplished this part of his task, The Turks immediately raised the he made a forced march to assault siege, and retired, leaving behind the intrenched camp of the Pacha them part of their artillery and before the dispersed troops of the military stores. · About the same Seraskier could rally. He aptime, the Pacha of Trebizond, peared before it on the 2nd of who had established himself, at July, stormed the intrenchments, the head of 8,000 men, in a strong and put the Turks to flight, leavcamp near the Euxine, waiting ing Hagki himself a prisoner in till the arrival of reinforcements his hands. In these two actions should enable him to commence they lost 1,500 prisoners, with the offensive operations to disappoint greater part of their artillery, amthe threatened designs of the munition, and provisions. Russians against Erzeroum, was That he might profit by the attacked in his position by general confusion and alarm which these Hesse, and, after an obstinate re- defeats produced, the Russian sistance, was driven from his in- commander, at the head of his trenchments, with the loss of whole army, pushed on to Erze1000 men.

roum with all possible rapidity. Count Paskewitch then pro- As he advanced, the Turks abanceeded to collect his forces, and doned to their fate the different make the necessary preparations posts which intervened; and in for advancing, through a difficult this way he occupied, on the country, against Erzeroum, the 5th of July, the strong fortress of capital of Anatolia. In his way Hassan Kale, the key of the calay mountain of Saganta, and pital. Being now in the immeon its steep and wooded summits, diate vicinity of Erzeroum, he the Turks, under Hagki Pacha, sent in one of his prisoners, an resolved to await him. He de- officer of distinction, bearing a ceived them, however, by a skil- proclamation, in which he pressed ful manæuvre, and, on the 26th of upon the inhabitants the hopelessJune, passed the mountain without ness of resistance, and promised opposition, while the attention of to them, on the other hand, if the Turks was occupied with a they gave up the city, freedom of feigned attack on their camp by religious worship, and the safety his left wing. He was now in a of their persons and property. situation to attack the camp itself, Some of the principal inhabitants when he learned that the Seras- and of the civic authorities were kier, having been informed of desirous that these terms should

be complied with ; but the more minated in the Russians entering clamorous and cowardly part of Chart, and carrying the intrenchthe population called aloud for ed camp of the enemy, who fell resistance, in which they were back in confusion


Trebisupported by the Seraskier, who zond. expected reinforcements. The Experience was thus teaching Russian columns advanced to the the Turkish government, in every assault; they drove the enemy direction, that it was involved in a from the fortified heights which struggle, in which continued rehe had occupied outside of the sistance would only render ultitown, and from thence opened a mate ruin more inevitable and defire of artillery upon the place. cisive; but it obstinately refused This operation produced instant to listen to any proposals of acsubmission; the capital of Ana- commodation, or to comply with tolia was given up, with 150 can- what was necessary to obtain the non, and large magazines of am- interposition of its allies. The munition and provisions. The ambassadors of Great Britain and Seraskier himself, and four of his of France had returned to Conprincipal Pachas, were made pri- stantinople in the month of June, soners.

to renew the negotiations regardBeing in possession of Erze- ing the settlement of Greece. The roum, count Paskewitsch directed only ground, on which these mihis next movements towards Tre- nisters would negociate, was the bizond. On the 19th of July, Sultan's accession to an arrangea detachment of the army took ment agreed upon ainong the possession of Beiburt, or Bai- allied powers in the month of burdi, a large fortified town on March. Several conferences took the road to Trebizond, 120 place between the ambassadors versts in advance of Erzeroum. and the Reis Effendi, in the The Turkish garrison abandoned month of July ; but they failed to it on the approach of the Rus- induce the Turkish minister to sians. The Pacha of Trebizond, accede to the proposed arrangehowever, having collected his ment. To do so, he argued, forces to drive them back from would be to unfurl the standard this advanced position, general of rebellion among all the subjects Bursow, who commanded in Bei- of the Porte who did not profess burt, marched to meet him, and Mahometanism : but he stated, at attacked him, on the 30th of July, the same time, that his governnear the village of Chart. The ment was willing to take every Russians, being greatly inferior in proper step to re-establish and numbers, were repulsed, with the secure the repose of Greece. He loss of their commander. Count proposed - 1st, that the Porte Paskewitsch, on learning this par- should grant a full amnesty to tial reverse, brought up the main the Greeks: 2ndly, that it should body of his army, with which he examine thoroughly the state of attacked the Turkish camp on the Greece, and introduce such ame8th of August. A series of severe liorations as would satisfy all engagements took place on that reasonable wishes ; 3rdly, that, for and the following day, which ter- a series of years, it would cause

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