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and devotion to the cause of ceived from the national congress Greece has alone prevented me of Træezene in 1827." from so doing. But as soon as,
The National Assembly wasconthrough divine Providence and voked at Argos, on the 23rd of my brave companions in arms, July. It ought to have met the operations on the gulf of sooner: but so little interest was Arta, the occupation of Macrino- felt, in the existence of such a ros, and the capitulation of Car- body, that the day of meeting had vassara had decided the fall of elapsed, and the elections had Lepanto and Missolonghi, and not taken place. The President the total liberation of western was under the necessity of writGreece, I repaired to the seat of ing circulars to certain persons, government, where, on the first whom he had connected with the opportunity offered to me by his administration, under the name excellency the President, I gave of extraordinary commissioners, him to understand, that it was not urging them to find ways and my intention to continue to serve means of getting the elections carunder the actual system. Those, ried through. An assembly acwho have served their country cordingly was got up, and, in such under my immediate orders, can circumstances, its opinions, if it bear witness to what I had daily had any, would all lie one way. to suffer, not from the Greek Those concerned in it were so nation certainly, nor from the ignorant of their business, that a brave military who supported me, great many provinces returned the but from the system adopted by President himself as a member of the government, which was ill cal- the legislative body. He might as culated to aid our military opera- well have named the members himtions, but well adapted to drive self. The province of Corinth gave from his post any general who did its deputies instructions, which, not feel, as I did, that he had de- after a warm eulogium on the voted his humble services, not to President, contained these two the individual at the head of the simple rules: 1st, they were government for the time, but to to confine themselves to matters, the Greek nation; and in whose which, in the President's opinion, soul the desire of her freedom was would advance the public good; not the ruling passion to which 2nd they were not to meddle with all others were subservient. With factions, and so resist the Prethe greatest respect for the Greek sident's salutary intentions. They nation, I subscribe to the follow- were farther told that, if they deing declaration, " That the actual parted in any degree from these system of the government of instructions, their powers were null Greece is not in harmony with and void. my opinions or conscience;' and The assembly, thus composed, in consequence I resign into the almost exclusively, of the Presihands of the representatives of dent's partizans, and governed the nation, assembled in Congress solely by his intuence, continued in Argos, the commission of gene- to sit from the 23rd of July till ralissimo and director of all the the 18th of August. It passed a land forces of Greece, which I re- law, directing that all differences
between parties, arising out of sadors of France and England, hadcrimes committed by the one returned to Constantinople, and against the other, between the 8th had presented for the acceptance of March 1821, and the installation of the Sultan, the protocol of of the provisional government in the 22nd of M h. The Rus1828, should be decided by three sians were not yet beyond the arbitrators, to be named, one by Balkan ; to accept the protocol each party, and one by the govern- was not yet a work of necessity : ment. These arbitrators were only therefore the Sultan obstinately reto award damages, and their great fused to have any thing to do with object was to be “the extinction it. The Balkan was crossed ; and of hostile passions.” Another de- the Sultan now proposed to yield cree recognized the necessity of to the Greek treaty, on condition building churches, providing for of Greece being restricted to the the clergy, and establishing schools Morea, of its being placed under a and printing-offices; and there- Hospodar of his own choice, of fore empowered the government his receiving a large tribute, and of —to take all the money which the new state enjoying no public might be given to it for these use- force, no separate national flag, 'ful purposes.
It recognized the no sign nor symbol of independdisinterestedness of the President, ence. These terms were not acin having “devoted to the service ceded to ; in accordance with of the country the remains of his the protocol they could not be property ;” and voted him a civil granted. The Russian army enlist of 180,000 phacnines, a reve- tered Adrianople, stretched across nue as little in esse as was the the country from sea to sea, and coin in which it was estimated. began to put out its feelers toThe President declined the money, wards the capital. To yield was which there was no treasury to at length a work of necessity; and pay; and having told them that Russia, dictating the terms of he was proud to have been al- peace, inserted an article in the lowed to “deposit the remainder treaty, by which Turkey acceded of his small property on the altar expressly to the protocol of the of the country,” added, that he 22nd of March, and by which it would never be a burthen to the was stipulated that the Porte public so long as any thing was should immediately appoint plenileft of that “ remainder” which potentiaries to settle with those of had been already deposited. In the three powers, the execution regard to foreign affairs, they of the stipulations and arrangegave him full power to take part in ments contained in that diplomatic any negotiations regarding Greece. act. By their last act, they declared that Russia, in thus making the setthey themselves were to form the tlement of the Greek question an next assembly, and were to be article of her separate treaty with convoked by the President so soon Turkey, falsified her own declaas the government should have ration, and usurped the powers of prepared a constitution, or other her allies. She had expressly and important matters should occur. ostentatiously announced, that the
In the mean time, the ambas.. Greek question was no cause of the
war which she was about to wage, sovereignty over the new state, and that, in regard to that topic of with an annual tribute, or whether dispute, she would act only in con- Greece should be utterly severed cert with her allies. By what right, from the empire, and set up in then, did she insert a single stipu- absolute independence ? The lation regarding it, in the treaty suzeraintè of the Porte had been that terminated a war, with which, one of the provisions of the treaty according to her own professions, of London; it was an express it had no connection, and a treaty condition of the protocol of the to which those powers, without 22nd of March, to which the Sulwhom she had bound herself to tan had been compelled to accede. take no step regarding it, neither The three powers had not hitherto were, nor could be, parties. This claimed any right actually to cut resembled too much the arrogance off whatever portion they might of the conqueror, who felt that his choose from the Sultan's dominions sword had rendered him inde- and erect it into an independent pendent of his diplomatic allies, state. But they had now changed and that he had contrived to make their minds; and it was resolved use of their assistance to put him that Greece should be freed from in a situation, which enabled him the sovereignty of Turkey out to settle the Greek question in any and out. To say nothing of the way he might choose. France and mischievous principle, if principle England immediately represented there be any, which lies at the to Russia, that the execution of the bottom of such acts, what had treaty of London did not belong already become of the treaty of to her alone, but was to be the Adrianople, signed only a few joint work of the three Cabinets. weeks before? The Sultan had In consequence of this representa- therein accepted the protocol of tion, it was agreed that the con- the 22nd of March; he had taken ferences regarding Greece should its disadvantages, and he was be transferred to London, and that entitled to its benefits. By that Turkey should not be authorized treaty Russia was bound, if there or required to send plenipotenti- be any faith in treaties at all, to aries to attend to her interests, preserve to Turkey its supremacy although her treaty with Russia over Greece; and yet Russia is expressly stipulated that she should one of three powers who calmly have power to do so. As among sit down, when the ink of that the allies, this might be perfectly treaty is scarcely dry, and resolve right; but as to the Porte the that it shall not be observed ! principle was this, that the provi- True it is, that Russia ought not sions in the treaty between it and to have meddled with the matter Russia were to be binding on the —that she was bound up from latter only in so far as they were making any stipulation regarding not inconsistent with engagements it. But still, since she had done between her and other powers, to so, she, at least, was bound to use which the Porte was no party.
all her influence to obtain its fulThe first important question filment: she used all her influence was, whether Turkey should be the other way. Even in regard to allowed to retain even a nominal her companions, the conditions, which they had proposed, were dent's answer to the note of the verbatim the conditions to which English resident, requesting a susRussia brought Turkey to consent pension of hostilities, and giving in the treaty. Turkey, who was full power to the President “ to no party to their conventions and take part in the negotiations to protocols, was entitled to hold, which the allied powers might inthat, when she made one of the vite him, in order to agree on the powers the medium of her assent conditions of the execution of the to that which all the three were treaty of London," but declaring, at demanding, she was satisfying the the same time, that the conditions claims of all of them. Vae victis! agreed on should not be binding
As some compensation for this on the nation, till they were acunprincipled game of confederacy, knowledged and confirmed by its the three powers next agreed to re- national representatives. Count strict the territory of the new state Capo d' Istria was invited to no within somewhat narrower limits negotiations, nor even informed of than were assumed in the protocol. their course. The interests of The boundary in that instrument Greece and of Turkey were decided was a line drawn across the at London,without the intervention mountains from the gulph of Volo of either a Turkish or a Greek on the east, to that of Arta on minister. It remained to be seen the west. The line now adopted how far the conclusions, at which was farther to the south. It was the three powers might arrive, to commence on the east at Zei- would receive the approbation of touni, a little to the northward of the “national representatives of Thermopylæ, and run across the Greece," and, if they did not, country, in the direction of Vra- how far these powers had succhori, till it reached the river As- ceeded in establishing happiness propotamos, the ancient Achelous, and repose by sacrificing the sound whose course it was then to follow principles of international law. to where it joins the sea not far Greece could scarcely have much to the west of Missolonghi. It reason to complain. The three thus excluded Acarnania and powers had not fought on her side Thessaly, the town of Vonizza, as allies; they had created her, which the Greeks had taken early as a thing to be moulded and in the year, and an extensive tract fashioned by their own views, and of level country lying round the' at their own pleasure. The gulph of Calamo. These matters they were exercising was anomawere determined without consult- lous in principle, and difficult in ing the wishes of the Greek practice ; but fortunately they people, or even making any com- could scarcely do any thing for munication to the Greek govern- her so bad as would indubitably ment. The National Assembly, have resulted from the ignorance which met at Argos on the 23rd of her own people, and the ignoof July, passed a decree, approv. rance, knavery, and selfishness of ing of the contents of the Presi- her own great men.
The power CHAP. XII.
UNITED STATES:-Congress-- Inaugural Address of the new Presi
dent.—Brazil.—Extraordinary Meeting of the Legislative Assembly-Proposed Reformation of the Bank-Ordinary Meeting of the Assembly--Reductions in Erpenditure-Finances-Attempted Impeachments of the Ministers of Justice and of War for their Proceedings on occasion of an Insurrection at Pernambuco.-Buenos Ayres.--General Lavalle, at the head of his Troops, overturns the Government-Do Rego, the Governor of Buenos Ayres, raises Troops in the Country to oppose him-Lavalle marches against him, defeats him, takes him Prisoner, and puts him to Death without Trial—Civil War-The Provinces of Santa Fè and Cordova declare against Lavalle—He marches against them—In his absence the Federalists under Rosas approach Buenos Ayres—Lavalle returns to defend the City— Buenos Ayres is besieged--Lavalle concludes a Treaty with the Federalists-Reverses of the Federalists in Cordova—The influence of Lavalle prevails in the Elections at Buenos Ayres- The Federalists refuse to acknowledge them --A new Convention is concluded, annulling the Elections, and naming a Senate to conduct the Government.—COLOMBIA.—War with Peru—The Peruvians blockade Guayaquil, and make an unsuccessful attack upon it-It afterwards capitulates—The Peruvians are defeated at Tarqui, and Preliminaries of Peace are signed–The Peruvian Governor of Guayaquil refuses to give it up, and the Campaign is renewed—In consequence of a Revolution in Peru, Guayaquil is given up to the Colombians, and Hostilities are suspended, that a Peace may be negociated—Bolivar convokes an Assembly to meet in 1830——He forces by a Decree the Rights of the Electors and the mode of Election-Santander's sentence of Death is commuted into Banishment– Decree against secret Societies
-An Insurrection against Bolivar breaks out in Popayan, but is quelled-Another Insurrection against his unlimited power breaks out in the province of Antioquia—A Revolution in Bolivia, in favour of the Colombian party.- PERU.-A Revolution—The President, Lamar, is sent into Banishment, and General La Fuente seizes the Government.--Mexico.---Consequences of the Insurrection of December 1828, and of the Flight of Pedrazza the President electCongress Meets ---Pedrazza resigns, and Guerrero is declared President-Law for the Expulsion of the old Spaniards--State of the Finances— Congress imposes an Income Tax, but the Government is unable to enforce it-Extraordinary Meeting of Congress to oppose a Spanish Invasion—They Vọte a forced Loan—They give the President unlimited power over Persons and Property-A Spanish