tions or explanations, the govern- of as being unconstitutional. A ment of Rio de Janeiro replied, motion was made in the legislative that the usurpation of the throne assembly to impeach the Minister of of Portugal did not alter the obli- Justice, for having ordered arrests, gations of Brazil, that these and continued to detain the persons obligations, arising from existing arrested, in violation of the forms treaties, should be fulfilled, who- established by the law for the proever was king of Portugal,—and tection of personal liberty. This that, as the dividends could not be motion having failed, it was folpaid to the English creditors, from lowed by another for impeaching the want of an accredited agent Alvarez, the Minister of War, on from Portugal, the funds should the ground that the military combe deposited in the Bank of Eng- mission which he had established land till such an agent should be was illegal and unconstitutional. appointed. “ This order," the The debates on this motion were minister added, “still continues in long and angry; the Emperor took force, and thus the credit of the so lively a personal interest in the empire has been saved.” Nothing affair, that he remained all day could be more frank than, this in his palace during the discusstatement of M. de Calmon. It sions, receiving accounts, from time admitted the obligations of Brazil to time, of the turn which they fully and distinctly. It went far- were taking; and it was believed ther ; it implied that funds had that he had determined, in the event been transmitted for the purpose of the impeachment being carof making the necessary payments; ried, to dissolve the chamber. The and that these funds, during a motion was lost, 32 deputies having temporary delay, arising from the voted for it, and 39 against it. So state of political relations, had small a majority, all that the inbeen deposited in the Bank of fluence of government could proEngland, and were now ready to duce, proved either that the governbe distributed among the creditors. ment had been very clearly in the Unfortunately, this, the most im- wrong, or that there was a dangerportant part of the statement, was ously powerful party determined one in which the Brazilian minis- to resist the imperial government, ter was deceiving, or had been de- whether it was wrong or right. ceived. Not a shilling had been lodged in the Bank of England ; In Buenos AYRES, again, the and the question of the committee, termination of the war was the com“Where is the money?" was not mencement of ruinous and dis. yet answered.

graceful civil dissensions, in which The only interruption of the in- nothing was respected but force, ternal tranquillity of Brazil arose and the people allowed themselves from a revolt which took place in and their government to be made Pernambuco. It was speedily the sport of military adventurers. crushed; but in suppressing it the General Lavalle returned to the government had recourse to ex- capital with part of the army, in traordinary measures of military the end of November 1828, and law, and tried the offenders by a forthwith proceeded to overturn the military commission. These pro- government, which, since the receedings were loudly complained signation of Rivadavià in 1827, had been in the hands of a party to other sentiment but the public good. which general Lavalle was opposed; I wish you to inform the people of but although it did not consist of Buenos Ayres, that the death of cothe general's political friends, it lonel Do Rego is the greatest sacriwas a government regularly ap- fice I can make in its favour.” The pointed according to the order of country, in which such things could the constitution, and was one under be safely done, could make no prewhich the general had been fighting tensions to the possession of a gofor a year and a half. He entered vernment. No man's life, liberty, Buenos Ayres at the head of his or property, was secure for an inmen, on the 1st of December, and stant against military bands, which announced that the government had seized power, and were admiwas at an end, having proved itself nistering law, at the point of the unworthy to fill the post which bayonet. it occupied. A tumultuous meet- The murder of Do Rego, howing of what was called an assembly ever, did not disperse his adherents. of the people was immediately held Rosas, Bartos, Molina, and other offiin presence of his troops. The ge- cers still kept the field, at the head neral himself was appointed provi- of considerable bodies of men, comsional governor of the province of posed of the country people, or Buenos Ayres, and the rest of the militia, joined by a few Indians, public offices were filled up with whom it had been the policy of his officers and creatures. Do Rego, the late government to gain over, the governor of Buenos Ayres, had They declared that they were in fled from the city a few hours arms to maintain the Constitution, before, and, along with Don Manuel and the legal representative goRosas, a powerful supporter of his vernment, which had been ejected party, was collecting troops in the by military violence. Lavalle, and neighbouring country. Lavalle his party, on the other hand, demarched against them on the 6th of scribed their opponents as robbers December. On the 9th a battle and banditti, resisting the laws, was fought, in which Do Rego's and setting at nought the power of army was defeated. He himself the true government of the counwas taken prisoner, and was in- try. The latter were styled Unitastantly shot by order of Lavalle, rians, the former were distinguishwithout any formality of trial- ed as Federalists; neither of them without even an inquiry by a court- seemed inclined to recognize any martial. No more lawless deed of law except their own military bloodshed could be perpetrated. power; and both of them concurLavalle himself thus announced red in plunging the provinces into it to his functionaries in the capital. a civil war. In the North, the cause “ Senhor Minister.-Inform the of the Federalists was sustained by delegate governor, that colonel Don general Bartos at Cordova, and by Manuel Do Rego has just been shot, Lopez, the governor of Santa Fé. by my order, in front of the regi. In Buenos Ayres, it was headed by ments which composed this division. Rosas, the most opulent landholder History will impartially judge, if in the province, whose influence colonel Do Rego deserved to die or had brought to his standard almost not; and if, in sacrificing him for all the peasantry, and gave him the he tra nquillity of a people op- command of the country districts. ressed by him, I could have any The first collision took place in the

north. On the 7th of February, foreigners of every nation were an engagement took place, at Pale commanded to arm in defence of mitas, between a detachment of the the city. To all this was added, Unitarians, and a body of five hun- at the same moment, a foreign dred Federalists, commanded by quarrel. In executing the order Molina. The latter were routed; that foreigners · should take up their second in command was taken arms, a distinction was made beprisoner, and sent to Buenos Ayres, tween French subjects and the where he was immediately put to British and Americans, on the death by a military commission, ground that France had not yet as being guilty of sedition, in- recognized the republic. Although surrection, resisting in arms the the British and Americans were troops of the province, and uniting exempted from military service in with the Indians to desolate the the defence of the city, it was country.

thought right to order the French Lavalle, who, in the mean time, residents to take up arms.

The had been occupied in securing the latter refused, and that refusal was peace of the capital, by prohibiting followed by a notice from the goall publications hostile to his party, vernment to quit Buenos Ayres and in providing for the safety of the within twenty-four hours. The southern provinces, now collected French consul, M. Mandeville, histroopsto march into the northern immediately set about engaging provinces. Before leaving the city vessels for the purpose, with all he issued a proclamation, convoking possible activity.

He then rethe legislature on the 1st of May. paired on board a French ship of war That assembly, however, was pre- which was in the roads, and comvented from meeting, and the en- municated what had taken place. terprise of Lavalle against Santa Two days afterwards an expedition Fè was suspended, in the end of was sent into the inner roads in April, in consequence of Rosas, at the night, which cut out all the the head of a considerable army of men-of-war that were lying there Federalists, having unexpectedly in ordinary, and burnt one vessel. appeared before the capital. This The French commander, likewise, intelligence recalled Lavalle from intimated that he would take poshis northern expedition. He con- session of all public property, untrived, by forced marches, to get less the Buenos Ayres Government between the enemy and the city, retracted its obnoxious order. and some fighting took place, on On the 4th of May, the Federal. the 26th of April, which termina- ists sent in a flag of truce, with ted favourably for the Federalists. proposals for an accommodation. The city was in a state of the The answer returned was, that no utmost alarm and confusion, num- terms could be listened to, so long as bers of women were placed on board they continued to occupy any part ship; most persons who had the of the province with an armed force. means of doing so, were making But Lavalle was too weak to beat arrangements for the security of back that armed force ; the siege themselves and their property ; bu- continued, and he was daily more siness of every kind was suspended closely pressed. The Federalists, by order of the government, that always increasing in number, ha. the attention of all might be die rassed the city night and day; they rected to the existing danger, and cut off its supplies ; skirmishes were taking place almost in the bers, he said, “ I have found in very streets. The horses of the those who were opposed to me Unitarian army were reduced to only fellow-citizens, disposed to the last extremity from want of consecrate to the honour of their provender ; their parties dared not country those arms which were venture far from the city, their raised against their brothers.” His enemies being too numerous and scheme of securing the unquestiwell mounted: the authority of oned domination of his own party Lavalle did not extend beyond the had evidently failed; he had set streets of Buenos Ayres. The out with the resolution of supportsufferings and dangers of the capi- ing himself by military power, but tal produced, among some of the he found his antagonist too strong wealthier inhabitants, mention of to allow him to expect a favourable peace; and negotiations were issue from force. begun between Lavalle and Rosas. General Paz, who commanded They terminated in a treaty be, the Unitarians in the north, and tween these two chiefs, concluded had marched against the Federal on the 24th of June, by which it provinces of Cordova and Santa Fe, was stipulated that, within the was more successful in his operashortest possible time, an election tions. He took possession of Corof representatives, according to law, dova on the 11th of April, general should take place; that, on a per- Bustos, with a force of about eight manent government being in- hundred men, having retired on stalled, both Rosas and Lavalle his approach.' : Paz marched in should place at its disposal the pursuit of him, and, on the 22nd of forces which they commanded; April, an action was fought, in that the obligations contracted by which Bustos was worsted. The Rosas for the maintenance of his Unitarian leader continued in Cortroops should be recognized and dova, while Bustos rallied and discharged; that his officers should reinforced his troops, and effected be entitled to pay according to a junction with Quiroga, who their rank; that no individual commanded another body of the should be molested for his conduct Federalists. They then advanced or political opinions anterior to the against Cordova at the head of treaty; that Rosas should continue five thousand men. Paz marched commandant-general of the country out to meet them ; and, on the districts of the province, with au

22nd and 23rd of June, engagethority to take such measures as he ments took place, in which the might think convenient for pre- Federalists were defeated, with serving the tranquillity and security the loss of about one thousand of the country, and to fill up the five hundred men in killed and necessary officesh the provisional prisoners. government taking care, in the These successes renewed the mean time, to provide him with courage, and re-invigorated the every thing necessary for that ser- exertions, of the Unitarians at vice. Lavalle announced the treaty Buenos Ayres, in the elections in a proclamation, in which, in re- which had been decreed by the lation to the men whom, during convention of the 24th of June. the preceding six months, he had These elections took place on the been describing as traitors and rob- 26th of July, and Lavalle was VOL. LXXI.


able, by his influence, and the the city, where Lavalle, however, presence of his troops in the capi. was continued in the command, tal, to turn them in favour of his while Rosas retained his troops and own party. As the result, there- his power as commandant-general fore, was disagreeable to Rosas, of the country districts. The and gave little security for the senate was installed on the 16th of observance of the stipulations of September. Some of the members the treaty in his favour, Rosas, appointed had refused to accept the like every other leader who feels office, on the ground that they himself too powerful to be com- could not act in any government pelled to submit to what he does formed in utter defiance of the not like, refused to acknowledge constitution of the country, and the government thus created. He the rights of its citizens. How kept his station, threatening and soon had this new republic fallen discontented, within twenty miles into the fangs of military despots of Buenos Ayres, at the head of ism! A general, having concluded his troops. The alarms of the a war, returns to the city. He city were renewed ; even Lavalle's finds a government created accordown party doubted the prudence of ing to the laws of the country; he raising to power, and that, too, not dislikes the political conduct of without force, party-men of his that government ; and, by the own faction, whose appointment mere power of the sword, strikes it would only exasperate an adversary to the ground, and sets himself up too powerful to be openly defied. in its stead. He proceeds to inNew negotiations were set on foot, flict death on the members of that and led to a new convention, on government, according to no law, the 24th of August, between La- but his own will, and after no valle and Rosas, by which it was investigation, either civil or mili. agreed, that the elections should be tary. Another military chief rises annulled, and a government created to oppose him; the country is kept without regard to the elective sys- in confusion and bloodshed betem of the republic, by vesting the tween them ; they modify and powers of the state in a senate alter its form of government as consisting of twenty-four individu- seems good to their individual als therein named. In the selec- interests; at last they strike up a tion of these individuals, the dicta- treaty, by which they trample its tion of Rosas prevailed ; they were constitution under foot, and create all, with a few exceptions, decided a government of their own manuFederalists. The new governor, facture; and, throughout all these general Viamont, though profess- proceedings, the people of this reing to belong to neither of the public are allowed no voice-no contending parties, was generally interest is consulted but the mili, considered to be much more the tary power of the rival leaders. friend of Rosas than of Lavalle. The whole proved that one party At the head of the finances was ruled in the city and another in placed Garcia, the minister who, in the country; that the former was 1827, had concluded with Brazil a too weak for the latter; and that treaty which the republie had dis. in both the only efficient law was avowed. On the 2nd of Septem- · that of the sword. As to the conber, Federalist troops marched into federation which formed the Ar

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