Westminster Hall, as a place of It will be observed, that ten temporary deposit, in the year years nearly have been employed 1824, and the consequent disability upon these reparations; the whole of carrying on the work properly, amount of charge during that peuntil a more fit place of deposit riod has been 6,1871. 6s. 7d. concould be provided for them. sequently these works have very

little exceeded in expense, one year The offices still remaining incom: with another, the sum of 600l., plete, are,

and the whole has been paid for 1. The Duchy of Lancaster, in binding and mechanical labour. which office 240 volumes have been How much longer it may take formed from bundles, and bound, to put the present offices in a containing Inquisitions Post Mor- state of complete arrangement, tem, Pleadings, Surveys, &c. from cannot be stated with any degree Henry 7th to the 23rd, of Elizabeth. of precision.

2. The Rolls Chapel. - 162 books, comprehending the series Scotland.-Works in progress at of Inquisitions Post Mortem, from

the Press. the reign of Henry 7th to the 12th year of Queen Elizabeth, I.-The Acts of the Parliaments have been bound in folio, which

of Scotland. previously were in bundles, and Of this work ten volumes are consequently not easy of reference. already printed ; viz. from the

3. The Chapter House, West, second to the eleventh inclus minster.—303 volumes have been sively. The first volume, with bound in folio and quarto, contains its introductory prolegomena, is in ing valuable historical and other progress at the press, and may propapers, surveys, rentals, &c., of bably be completed within the prevarious periods from early time, sent year. The indexes of matters

4. The Augmentation Office. to the whole work will constitute 287 volumes, in folio and quarto, the twelfth and last volume, but of a similar nature with those at cannot be in readiness for the press the Chapter House, including also in less than two years from this more than 5,000 deeds, have been time. Each of these volumes will, bound, and nearly 10,000 rolls, extend to about 600 pages; the most of them previously unarrang- printing and binding of each voed, unknown, and obscure, have lume will cost about 1,500l. The been completely repaired, newly expense of transcription, and other with parchment backs, and labelled, editorial expenses, cannot be exand endorsed with the titles of actly ascertained, but in addition their contents. To the operations to those already incurred and proabove-mentioned the secretary to vided for, they may be estimated the Board has given his general at under 1,0001. superintendence over all the works

II. -Collection of Ancient Royal here described, and his more particular attention to the two last

Charters. mentioned offices ; every book and

Of this work a part is already roll having been inspected and printed, which is intended ulti, marked by him, for all which, how. mately to form the first part of the ever, as yet, he has received no second volume of a work which remuneration whatever.

will extend to three volumes in cannot be greatly diminished till folio. The expense of printing the arrear be fully brought up. the portion of this work above alluded to exceeded 1,000l. but if Works preparing for the Press. the number of copies should be re- 1.-Abridgement of the Register duced from 1,000 to 500, the ex

of the Great Seal. pense of the whole that remains to be executed would probably not The compilation of this work exceed 2,0001. The expenses of has been in regular progress transcription and other editorial since the year 1824 ; its proexpenses would amount to at least bable extent, when printed, 'has an equal sum. From the peculiar been calculated at two closelynature of the work, four or five printed volumes in folio, on the years would still be required for supposition of its being brought its completion.

down to the Union in 1707. The

state of the actual compilation, III.--Abridgment of the Registers however, which comes down only of Seisins.

to the reign of Queen Mary, renThis is a work not intended ders this conjecture uncertain. Sefor general circulation, but solely veral years, not less than four, must to facilitate researches in the be required to complete the abridg General Register House, which ment, but in the mean time it will are at present of a most la- be sent to the press; and on the borious, tedious, and expensive supposition of its amounting to kind; and of which the difficulty two closely-printed volumes of has long been progressively in- 700 pages each, the expense of creasing. The abridgment com- printing may be estimated at mences with the year 1781, and 3,0001., and the other editorial the first 20 years have been nearly expenses at from 1,6001. to 2,0001. completed at press; and this por

II.--An Abridgment of the Retion of the work will amount to

gister of Entails. 3,500 pages in folio. The second series of 20 years, will, in extent,

A selection from the records of exceed the first by at least one-half, Privy Council. An index to the and cannot be safely completed Register of Entails. within less than four

Considerable preparations for It is a work which must after- these works have been made, but wards proceed progressively at at present their completion remains nearly the same rate, Only suspended. JOHN CALEY. twenty-four copies are printed, Secretary to his Majesty's Comand the expense on that head missioners on the Public Reamounts to about 2l. 10s. per sheet.

cords, The expenses of compiling, tran- June 11, 1829. scribing, &c., amount at present, to about 1,100l. per annum, and

five years.



his own


The minister of commerce might, cessively applied to all the various more readily than any other indie branches of industry, putting us vidual, have relied upon

in the way of reforms and imexperience, with regard to the provements which it is now more customs duties, and to his own desirable than ever to carry into information in matters of trade, our system of imposts and comconsidered under the head of public mercial policy. Not, as some saneconomy.

Nevertheless, he was guine and impatient people supthe first to apply to the adminis- pose, that a clear light can at once tration that system of investigation burst forth, or that projects of laws and inquiry which it becomes a and ordinances can proceed exclurepresentative government to adopt. sively from these inquiries into

In the course of the months of each particular interest. As in November and December last, other instances, each individual certain proprietors of mines and will pay attention to his own affairs forests, forge-masters, iron-mer- in preference to all other considerchants, iron-founders, and artificers, ations. Such is, such cannot fail were separately called before a to be, the defect of this sort of commission of inquiry, under the inquiry ; but that affords no reason presidency

of the minister of com- for abandoning the plan, nor, as it They were examined, at

seems to us, is it sufficient to in. tended to, and allowed to offer duce us to proceed otherwise. suggestions with regard to the con

The two processes verbal, which dition, wants, grievances, and we have already seen, together wishes of those connected with the with the report of baron Pasquier fabrication and trade in iron.

upon the first, and that of the Persons, the most able and skil- count d’Agrout on the second, ful among the colonial planters, form by themselves two thick vothe beet-sugar makers of France, lumes. When the opinions and the refiners, the merchants in every pretensions of every interest obkind of sugar, have likewise been tained in the same way shall have heard and consulted upon what been collected and submitted to concerns the growth, manufacture, the examination of able men, they and trade in sugar.

will certainly afford the materials Doubtless this great undertak- best calculated to enable the Chaming is continued, and will be suc- bers and the king's ministers to

form a correct opinion upon ques• The members of the commission, tions of commercial legislation, eighteen in number, are the barons Portal, Pasquier, de Barante ; the

duke particularly with respect to the de Fitzjames; counts d'Agout, de Tour- customs. non, de Kergariou ; Messrs. de Berbis,

The budget of the present year Humann, Pardessus, Oberkampf, Du

contains a

sum of 99,000,000 vergier de Hauranne, Jacques Lefevre, Gautier de freville, Filleau de st. francs received under the head of Hilaire, Deffaudis, David.

customs. Of this, 24,400,000

francs almost twenty-five per cent tracting from the bosom of the have been expended on account of earth substances useful to man. collection and management. In Its products, which are raw and fact, considering its nett produce, necessary materials, possess a comthis of all imposts is the most ex- mercial value determined by the pensive; consequently, it is the amount of capital which it is nefirst of which it would be desirable cessary to expend in obtaining to endeavour to disencumber the them, and never greatly exceeding contributors, if the matter were that amount. considered merely in a pecuniary To the other class belong the point of view.

manufacturer, the workman, the But the customs are not merely artificer of all sorts of things, who a tax—they are also, and indeed work up the raw material into an especially, an instrument of admi- infinite variety of forms, and by the nistration, the necessary regulator mere labour of their hands add to of the efforts of industry and na- its value a price indeterminate, tional commerce, a mean of defence and, it may be said, without limit. that should not be allowed to slip, In every country the former of against the invasion of foreign these two classes has more to lose trade and industry, a charge like than gain by importation. Among that of the administration of justice us what is at present necessary for and the maintenance of strong it almost exclusively is, that it holds, to which society should should continue mistress of the submit even though the public markets of the interior--that is, treasury could not derive from it that we should shut out the comany advantage. Of all the nu- petition of foreign products, which merous and complicated consider- This class can scarcely sustain upon ations which the budget compre- any point. It seeks to be protected hends, this (of the customs) is one from the introduction of the grain of the most difficult and delicate, of Odessa, the sugar of India, the when viewed not only as a finan- iron of Sweden, the hardware of cial question, but as a question of England, the wool of Spain, and economy. It is with reference to black cattle from beyond the Rhine. this latter head, exclusively, that To effect this, it calls for the asthe commission of inquiry has been sistance of customs, and always occupied. Nowhere is the con- finds the tariffs too low. sideration of the amount of pecu- The class of manufacturing inniary produce more secondary,– dustry has also some interest in in no case would it be so mis- excluding from our markets certain chievous that that consideration rival productions of foreign fabric. should predominate.

But, in addition to this, competiThe industrious population is tion becoming daily less formidable divided into two productive classes, to it in proportion to its own inproductive by different means, and creased skill, freedom of importain many respects opposed in in- tion in general will more than terest. The one, which compre- compensate it for any injury it may hends the husbandman, the miner, sustain by the fall which will thus the herdsman, and all the various be occasioned in the price of necesbranches of these three principal saries. The class of jewellers, divisions, finds employment in ex- therefore, every thing considered, VOL. LXXI.

2 D

is but little inclined to favour the a certain limit, re-acts to that system of customs.

point upon our export trade, which It is the same, and for a stronger it would be desirable to extend as reason, with consumers at large, much as possible. It will be reawho, without understanding the dily perceived, that our neighbours question generally, perceive in the as well as ourselves must be anxoperation of the customs nothing ious to maintain the balance of but an obstacle to their procuring trade, and with that view, to oppose provisions, clothing, and household on their side the introduction of goods, at the best market.

our produce, by the same restricThen beyond these clashing pri- tions and the same duties by which vate interests rise the interests of we resist the introduction of theirs. the public; the necessity of holding Thus we see that every where the equally, if not inclining in favour wines of France are subjected to of France, the balance of trade those enormous import duties, of with foreign nations, so as not to which the departments of the South give to the latter the advantage complain so vehemently this year, over us which a creditor has over and which they chiefly attribute to a debtor, but if possible to preserve that kind of prohibition to which that advantage over them; the the introduction of foreign iron is necessity of attaching a revenue to subjected. territorial property, in order not to This question of iron, which expose to the risk of perishing this, occupied the earliest attention of if one may so call it, eldest branch the commission, affords also an exof the social family, and by the ample, remarkably singular, of the same stroke to dry up the most utility of the operation of the certain as well as the most abunde customs, and of rigorous tariffs for ant source of the national wealth; the development and maintenance in fine, the great importance which of certain branches of the national it is to the future prosperity of the industry. country to protect the national in- The necessity of our supplying dustry, feeble as it still is in many ourselves during twenty-five years respects, and to afford it time and of maritime warfare, and of contiopportunity to acquire sufficient nental blockade, gave rise to a force to maintain the contest which great many speculations and estabit is called upon to sustain in the lishments for the working and imcompetition with foreign industry. provement of our native iron.

Such are the end and incontest- These created employment for vast able utility of the customs, con- capital and for a great many hands. sidered as an instrument of govern- The value of property in wood ment;—such are the interests (the only fuel then used in forges) which the commission of inquiry was soon very considerably inis called upon to consider, and if creased, and this increase gave rise possible to reconcile one with ano- to new fortunes and new interests. ther.

In the year 1818, the (iron) manuLet us observe, on the other factories of France gave to conihand, for this is the grand objec- merce 800,000 quintals of wrought tion, that the prohibitive action of iron, which, in leaving the manuthe customs on the import trade, factories, represented a value of which it is necessary to restrict to 40,000,000 of francs, 50 francs the

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