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metrical quintal, the lowest price come into the market under 48f. at which our forge-masters could 50c. The same price, within three sell it.
per cent at which the iron of In the mean time the English, France then was. This regulation on their side, unknown to us, dis- was doubtless adopted in order not covered and perfected the mode of to make any change in the condiemploying pit-coal, and using it in tion of the consumers, indeed the smelting of iron ores. This rather to ameliorate it a little, and advantage, joined to that which at the same time to stimulate the they always enjoyed of an abund- industry of the home manufacturer ance of iron ores, was such, that by giving him the alternative either when commercial intercourse was of having this 3 percent taken from opened, it was found that the Eng- his pockets, or of finding means of lish could supply our markets with producing, at a less expense,
this wrought iron at 21 francs the me- article, which was especially necestrical quintal, nearly sixty per cent sary for the great interests of the less than that at which our iron- country. The preservation of the masters could produce it in France. national industry being thus gua
It would undoubtedly happen ranteed, and the trade fortified by that the inevitable effect of this so the protecting duty, the manufacgreat difference of price between turers did direct their attention, the foreign and domestic produce as well to the improvement of the would be to us the cessation and old process of working, as to enable total abandonment, without chance themselves to use the new process. of restoration, of the whole of the The quantity of wrought-iron, iron manufacture of France, the which had been only 800,000 ruin of thousands of families who quintals in 1818, in 1826 had had already applied themselves to risen to 14,000,000, and since that branch of industry, an enor
then it has increased about 100,000 mous and sudden decline in the more. value of property in woods and In the latter end of 1828 there forests; and altogether to throw were already in France fourteen into the balance of trade in favour blast-furnaces, worked like those of England the price of all the of England with coke or pit-coal, iron which might be consumed in and capable themselves alone of France.
producing 800,000 quintals of iron. To guard against such individual At the same period there were disasters, as well as so great a pub- twelve other furnaces of this delic loss, it became necessary that scription building, and companies the produce of the English forges were fornring for the establishment should not be allowed into our of a greater number. markets at a lower price than that Within the last three or four of the forges of France. It was years there have also been dis-' to this that the operation of the covered in the departments of Gard customs was directed. By means and Aveyron, coal-pits of more or of an import duty of 27f. 50c. per less extent, close to abundant quintal, this foreign iron could not strata of iron ore of excellent qua
litv. * The value of the wood consumed in each year in the manufacture of iron
We have reason to believe, that has been valued at 30 millions of francs. when the facility of conveyance by
means of canals and railways shall to expect, or indeed the success have been added to the improve- that has been already obtained. ments and discoveries already made, One of the manufacturers exthe forges of France will produce a amined before the commission has sufficient quantity, and at so rea- stated, that the beet-root sugar sonably low a price, as to put an which he sells in the market at i end to the necessity of importation, franc 20 centimes the kilogram, at the same time that the artisan with a profit of eleven per cent, and consumer will have no cause stood him in 5 francs in the year to regret the low price of foreign 1811, on which he was satisfied to iron.
sustain a loss of ten per cent. On Under these considerations, and the other hand, it appears from many others which have resulted tables laid before the commission from the inquiry, the commission, by the Minister of Commerce, that after mature deliberation, being there are at present in France unanimously convinced that the eighty-nine sugar factories, the period has not yet arrived for produce of which may be estimated abandoning the iron trade to itself, at 4,400,000 kilogrammes; that and for depriving it of the protec. is to say, equal to about a fifth of tion of the import duty, is of the quantity of foreign sugar conopinion that " for the present there sumed in France. This industry, should be no change made in the it is said in the exposé of the mi. import duty upon iron, but that nister, makes this very moment, as the tariff may be reduced one-fifth well by the preparations which are (20f. instead of 25f.) in the course making for the erection of new facof five years."
tories as by the adoption of new As regards sugar, the state of processes, an advance calculated to the question is very nearly the give a very rapid increase of pro
The object in view was, to duction. secure a preference in our markets But for this purpose it will be to sugar grown in our own colo- necessary that the duty should asnies, over that coming from those sist it for some years to come. The of other countries, and at the same makers of native sugar insist, then, time to take care that the very low upon the keeping up of the present price of either should not become tariffs. Moreover, these manufacan obstacle to the propagation and turers, admitting fully that beetthe progress of a branch of the root sugаr may and ought at national industry altogether new, some period to be taxed, maintain and the creation of which arose that to subject it at present to any from the continental blockade at duty whatever would be to ruin a time when colonial sugar cost almost all the factories in existence, five or six times more in France while it would, at the same time, than in any other country. We prevent the creation of any new speak of the art of extracting sugar establishment. They also argue, from beet-root, the first attempts that as long as we have colonies, it at which did not, as will be re- will be but justice to secure their membered, make the fortunes of produce a preference in our marthose who engaged in them, and kets. were very far from promising what To sum up, the commission of we have good grounds at present inquiry has come to this conclusion, that without at all diminishing wines, is not given up, the comthe duty of 24f. 75c. upon the mission has thought fit to anticipate sugar of our own colonies, which nothing in this respect; their wish raises their price on coming out of is, that until an altered state of bond into the market to 71f. 75c. circumstances shall arise, the homethe quintal, the duty upon the made sugar shall be free from all sugar of foreign colonies has been duty whatsoever. fixed at 41f. 25c., so that they shall Thus the most important result not be able to come into the market of these branches of the inquiry at less than 78f. 75c. per quintal. will be, that for the present there
And with respect to the home- is to be scarcely any change in the made sugar,—that from beet-root, tariff of duties, and in the state of while the just right to impose a affairs, so far as iron and sugar are duty upon it at some time or other, concerned. similar to that now imposed on
DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE regarding the Introduction of the
PORTUGUESE CONSTITUTION. No. I.--Mr. Secretary CANNING No. II.—Sir CHARLES STUART to to Sir WILLIAM A'COURT.
Mr. Secretary CANNING. (Extract)
(Received July 7.) Foreign-office, June 28, 1826. (Extract) Although it is scarcely possible Rio de Janeiro, April 30, 1826. that the intelligence which has His Imperial Majesty then talked been received at Paris from Rio of conciliating the affections of the de Janeiro should not be already Portuguese by giving them a conknown at Lisbon, or at least should stitutional charter; and, if the not arrive there before this packet, war should turn out unsuccessfully yet (to leave nothing to chance) I in the south, of obtaining military enclose to your excellency the copy succour from Po-tugal, with a view of a despatch, received yesterday to diminish the burthen, which is from his majesty's ambassador at already severely felt in this country. Paris, enclosing the publication in My suspicion of the principles the Moniteur of the act by which which such a charter might prothe emperor of Brazil abdicates mulgate, induced me to point out the Crown of Portugal in favour the necessity of caution; saying, of his daughter.
that if the mere convocation of the In this act reference is made to Cortes, who were the ancient and another, by which his imperial legitimate institution of the kingmajesty has given a constitution dom, was viewed with jealousy by to the kingdom of Portugal. But Spain and France, what mischief of that act (whether it has not might not be produced by a change, been received in France, or whether in which the Cortes had borne no lord Granville has inadvertently part ; and M. de Paranagua, who omitted to forward it) I am not saw his majesty soon after, entered enabled to send you a copy.
so fully into the spirit of this ob(Signed) GEORGE CANNING. jection, that, for several days, no His Excellency Sir Wm. A'Court, other constitutional system but
such as should be founded upon the people of Portugal to receive the ancient institutions of Portu- a boon, which should be calculated gal was thought of.
to involve them in disputes with (Signed) CHARLES STUART. their neighbours, and not to allow The Ri. Hon. Geo. Canning, fic. the constitution to transpire, before
he should be certain that it had No. III.-Sir CHARLES STUART
been accepted. to Mr. Secretary CANNING.
His majesty said, that he appre(Received July 7.)
ciated the justice of my reasons (Extract)
for preferring the old institutions, Rio de Janeiro, April 30, 1826. of Portugal, but that however much The Council did not separate, on I might admire those institutions, Friday, until they had determined I must admit, that since they were upon a complete change of mea- not in every respect suited to the . sures, since it was resolved that his present day, some change must imperial majesty should merely ac- necessarily be introduced, and, this cept the Crown of Portugal for necessity once admitted, the Cortes the purpose of giving to that king- would become a constituent body, dom a constitutional charter, suited subject to a thousand inconveniences to the circumstances of the times, which a charter could alone remove. and that, in the event of this He then produced his project of a charter being favourably received, constitution, already completed, to and his eldest daughter given to the compilation of which he had the Infante Don Miguel, he should devoted the greater part of the abdicate in her favour.
week; and the joy with which he I thought the consequences of spoke of its contents shows, that this change too important to be the promulgation of this act is the passed over without comment, and principal inducement held out to I therefore waited upon his impe- him by his advisers, for the abdirial majesty.
cation of the Crown of Portugal. · I took the liberty of remarking As it was impossible for me to to his majesty, that since he was look through so long a paper at reluctant to depend upon the an- that time, he told me, generally, cient institutions of the country, by that it established two Chambers, convoking the Cortes of Lamego, and that as it upheld the prerogait was absolutely necessary to an
tives of the sovereign, and the nounce the constitutional changes power of the nobility, he could which he meditated, in such a not coincide in the fears which I manner that they should not appear seemed to entertain respecting its to emanate from the councils of possible effect in other countries. his Brazilian advisers, and that I He then proceeded to develope therefore hoped he would not wait the plans, according to which his for the meeting of the Chambers "own abdication is conditional, and in Rio de Janeiro, to publish his dependent upon the marriage of decrees; adding, that although the his daughter by proxy to the Insame argument did not apply to fante Don Miguel, and upon the the constitution, of which the acceptance of the constitution. The tendency might be misinterpreted regency is, in the first instance, in Brazil, I implored him to bear confirmed, the amnesty published, in mind the possible hesitation of and as soon as the three estates
shall have taken the oaths to the he recei:ed the diplomatic corps new constitution, the queen will this morning, for the purpose of repair to Lisbon.
telling me that the acts relative to After some altercation, his ma- the settlement of affairs in Portujesty promised to delay the publi- gal having been completed, he concation of the Portuguese charter sidered it a mark of respect to the until it should have been accepted memory of his father to request at Lisbon, whither he stated his the plenipotentiary whom he had wish to send these acts through chosen to negociate the separation my hands, as Portuguese plenipo- of the two countries, to perfect the tentiary, since he considers them work which had been so successthe complement of the treaty which fully commenced during his lifeI had signed for the separation of time; adding, that when he had the two countries.
shown me, in my audience on the I was somewhat startled by this preceding day, the several papers mark of confidence, which I en- which he had drawn up, he had deavoured to avoid, by expressing fully opened his mind to me, and my doubts how far such a course reposed in ne a degree of confimight meet the approbation of my dence of which no other person Court. As, however, he persisted could boast. in his determination, I replied that
I have the honour to enclose a his request embarrassed me very copy of the full powers which his much, since I was totally unpre- imperial majesty has been pleased pared to take upon myself so heavy to express his intention to intrust a responsibility; for that his impe- to me, and shall proceed to Lisbon rial majesty might have observed, on board the Diamond as soon as that in the course of the discus- she can be got ready for sea. sions upon this subject, I had not (Signed) CHARLES STUART. allowed myself to give an opinion The Rt. Hon. Geo. Canning, fc. which did not directly refer to the public acts approved by the king's
(Enclosure in No.4.--Translation.) government.
Whatever may be the view taken Full powers granted by the EMPEby his majesty's ministers of the
ROR of BRAZIL to Sir CHARLES transactions detailed in this des
STUART, May 2, 1826. patch, they are by no means com- Honoured marquis of Angra, sir mitted by my language or my Charles Stuart, my friend, I the proceedings, under a total want of king send you greeting as to one instructions, and they consequently whom I love much. In consideraremain at liberty to follow the tion of your merits, and of the love course which they may consider which on no few occasions you expedient.
have shown for my royal person (Signed) CHARLES STUART. and family, I am pleased to auThe Rt. Hon. Geo. Canning, 8c. thorize you to deliver, in my royal No. IV.—Sir CHARLES STUART dom, my royal decrees of the 26th,
name, to the regency of the kingto Mr. Secretary CANNING.
27th, 28th, 29th, and 30th of (Received July 7.)
April, and 1st of May, as well as (Extract)
my letters of constitution and law, Rio de Janeiro, May 1, 1826. the one of the 29th of April, and The emperor sent for me, before the other of the 2nd of May, all of