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theory in view of what we know of the degenerate character of the masonry during the latter part of the Roman occupation; and if we are to believe Vegetius' account of the state of the Roman legions at the end of the fourth century, we cannot credit them with so fine a work. Further, why did they not—at least for a great part of the line--use the already existing ditch of the vallum?

It is probable that too much stress has been laid upon the achievements of Agricola. There is nothing to show that his Clyde to Forth frontier was maintained continuously after his recall, or that the Antonine barrier was held after Caracalla abandoned his father's conquests. On the whole, the evidence goes to show that the Tyne to Solway line was the frontier under Hadrian; that Lollius Urbicus extended it to the Forth and Clyde ; and that early in the third century it was again contracted, Blatum Bulgium and Bremenium becoming the northernmost outposts. Later, about A.D. 300, the linea valli became once more the frontier.

The Roman Antiquities Committee for Yorkshire.---On June 25th last, the Committee visited the Blackstone Edge moors, on the borders of Lancashire and Yorkshire, for the purpose of inspecting the Roman road, the pavement of which is the finest remaining in Britain. Its width varies from 18 ft. on the western to 14 ft. on the eastern slope, and the centre of the pavement is composed of massive stones, which on the slopes of the hill are trough-shaped. The cause or purpose of this troughing has given rise to much speculation, but it was probably due to the use of skids by vehicles descending the hill. About half way up the Lancashire slope, where the rise is 1 in 4], a branch road deviating from the Roman road was made in post-Roman times, and where the branch road first deviated, coming down hill, the trough stones have apparently been removed, the suggestion being that it was not possible otherwise to get the wheel out of the trough. At the top of the hill, 1,400 ft. above sea level, is the supposed site of a Roman camp. Near this spot, Mr. W. H. Sutcliffe, F.G.S., has recently carried out some excavations, close to where three large flat stones lay, and disclosed a peculiar rectangular stone structure on the side of the road, apparently about a foot high, though perhaps more, which the three stones might have exactly covered. It is thought that this may be a British cist or tomb, and Mr. Sutcliffe has agreed to examine the interior. From the top of the hill a mediæval track and a British track--the latter 5 ft. deep in places—may be seen. The road on the Yorkshire slope in many places shows no very distinct trough marks in the central stones, though lower down the ruts are very deep and clear. Parts of this road are thought to have been re-laid in postRoman times, with Roman material.

We are informed that Dr. Bodington, the Chairman of the Committee, has commenced the excavation of a villa at Middleham, and the Committee hopes to make some trial excavations at Cawthorn Camps, near Pickering, this autumn, with a view to excavating the whole site in subsequent years, if the indications are favourable.

The Committee, though primarily composed of a number of Yorkshire Societies, has power to co-opt other persons who are interested in the work, at a subscription of 28. 6d. per annum, or a composition life fee of £1 ls. The Honorary Secretary and Treasurer is Mr. S. D. Kitson, Greek Street Chambers, Leeds.

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ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF RESEARCHES

INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS OF THE

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CONTENTS.

Proceedings of the Annual Congress, Voutingham, 1906

... 191
ARCHEOLOGICAL NOTES.- The Roman City of Corstopitum, near Corbıridge-

on- n-Tyne.-Roman Remains at Glasfryn, Tremadoc, Carnarvonshire. -
Roman Remains at Carnarvon.- A Roman Building in Colchester Castle
Park.- A Hoard of Roman Coins at Colchester.—The Age and Use of
British Stone-Circles.--Discoveries at Old Kilpatrick, Dumbartonshire.

A Berkshire 6 Dene-Hole." - Ancient Boats. ---Relics of the Bronze
Age.---The Heron Pit, Newcastle-on-Tyne. - Excavations at Haughmond
Abbey, near Shrewsbury:-York Minster.--Selby Abbey Church

202

ILLUSTRATIONS.

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THE ISLE OF ICTIS AND THE EARLY TIN

TRADE.

BY EMANUEL GREEN, Esq., F.S.A.

(Read November 15th, 1905.) IROM certain allusions or statements in old

writers, it has been assumed and accepted that in prehistoric times there was an export trade in British tin, shipped from an island called Ictis, lying somewhere off the coast. This island, the story

says, became a peninsula at low water, and could then be reached by dry land, when the tin was brought to it and sold, shipped to Gaul, and carried across to Marseilles on horseback.

The great puzzle here has been the whereabouts of this island : a puzzle which has caused much doubt and wild guess-work without any satisfactory result. Ву some it should be St. Michael's Mount, off Penzance; by others, it was the Black Rock at Falmouth; by others, it was St. Nicholas's Island, at the mouth of the Tamar, near Plymouth ; hy others, it was the Isle of Portland; and by others, it was the Isle of Thanet.

Yet againand most absurd of all—it has been supposed and asserted

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1906

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