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ILLITERATE WHITE ADULTS IN THE SEVERAL STATES. 389

Nliterate White Adults in the Several States—1850.

STATES.

Natives.

Foreign.

Total.

...........

Alabama
Arkansas
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine ...
Maryland .....
Massachusetts
Michigan
Mississippi....
Missouri
New Hampshire..
New Jersey.....
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Island.....
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Vermont..
Virginia......
Wisconsin

33,618
16,792
2,201

826
4,132
3,564
40,794
34,107
67,275

7,043 64,340 14,950

1,999 17,364 1,055 4,903 13,324 34,420

893 8,370 23,241 73,226 51,968 41,944

981 15,580 77,017 8,037

565 75,868 1,459

139

27 2,917 4,013

404 295

406 5,947 3,265 1,077 2,347 6,271 4,148 3,451 26,484 3,009

81 1,861 2,064 5,878 68,052

340 9,062 24,989 2,359

104

505 2,488 5,624 1,137 4,902

33,757 16,819 5,118 4,739 4,536 3,859 41,200 40,054 70,510

8,120 66,687 21,221

6,147 20,815 27,539

7,912 13,405 36,281

2,957 14,248 91,293 73,566 61,030 66,928

3,340 15,684 77,522 10,525

6,189 77,005 6,361

Total

741,751

193,646

935,397

An exposition of the educational interests of the several States is regarded as not inappropriate in a work of a political character. These interests are not only the occasion of frequent legislation, but are likewise indicative of the material growth and prosperity of the several States.

The accompanying tables are instructive as showing the comparative estimate placed upon education in different States. The Eastern are distinguished for their devotion to Common Schools. Their example is being closely imitated by the Mid-
dle and Western States. In the more Southern States school
facilities are less general: but there are some hopeful indica-
tions of improvement.

It has been estimated that the proportion of free white
children, between the ages of five and twenty, who are found
in attendance at some school or college, is, in the Northern
States, something more than three-fifths of the whole. In the
Southern States, the proportion is not quite one-fifth of the
whole number.

The concluding table will indicate the proportion of white
adults over twenty years of age, in each State, who cannot
read and write, to the whole white population:
Connecticut 1 to every 568 Mississippi 1 to every 20
Vermont.

1
473 Delaware

1

18
New Hampshire 1 310

1

18
Massachusetts.... 1
166 Illinois.

1

17
Maine...........

1
108 South Carolina... 1

17
Michigan.......

1
97 Missouri

1

16
Rhode Island

1
67 Alabama

1

15
New Jersey

1
58 Kentucky 1

131
New York .........

1
56 Georgia..... 1

13
Pennsylvania .... 1 50 Virginia

1

121
Ohio

1

43
Arkansas .........

1

111
Louisiana...... 1

381
Tennessee...

1

11
Maryland......... 1
27 North Carolina... 1

7

66

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Indiana .......

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66

66

INDEX.

Abolitionists, organization of, 200, Caucuses, 64, 67, 80; history of, 107.
227; nominations, 243.

Chase, S. P., 262.
Adams, John, on the power of England, Clay, Henry, elected Speaker, 71, 74,

12; elected Vice President, 28; 81, 87, 99 ; Secretary of State, 111;
re-elected Vice Pres., 40; Presi- candidate

for President, 187, 225.
dential candidate, 44; inaugura Clinton, De Witt, candidate for Pres-
tion, 46; dismisses Cabinet offi- ident, 73.
cers, 50 ; 'defeat of for re-election, Clinton, Goo., elected Vice President,
51; retirement of, 53.

68.
Adams, J. Q., foreign minister, 46; Sec- Compromise, Missouri, 87, 261 ; of 1850,

retary State, 81; candidate for 250.
President, 106; elected President; Confederacy, 20; articles of, 338.
110; inauguration, 111; opposition Congress, Continental; its character,
to, 112, 118; candidate for re-elec- 20.
tion, 118; on annexation of Texas, Congress, 1st, 30; 20, 36, 40; 80, 42;
194; attempted censure by the 26th, contest at its organization,
House, 212.

196, 265.
Alien and Sedition laws, 49.

Congress, compensation of members,
Anti-Federalists, 29.

373.
Anti-Masons, rise of, 137.

Congress, power of, over slavery in the
Appropriation Bill, 270; for the Army, Territories, 95, 272, 311.
271.

Congress, number of Representatives
Arkansas admitted, 167, 360.

and Senators in, 368.
Articles of Confederation, 338.

Constitution, Federal, adopted, 26;
Authority, British and Colonial, 10. ratified, 28; text of, 321.

Constitution, Lecompton, 248.
Bank, National, 35, 70, 77, 140, 154, 167, Convention, Colonial (1765), 13; at
206.

Philadelphia (1774), 18; Constitu-
Banks, N. P., elected Speaker, 265.

tional, 24.
Barnburners, 241, 243.

Convention, Republican (1832), 137 ;
Boston Port Bill, 16.

Democratic,

Democratic
Buchanan, J., candidate for President, (1835), 169; Whig (1839), 198; Dem-

278; inaugurated, 296; Kansas ocratic, 200; Whig (1844), 225;
policy, 315.

Democratic, 226; 1848, 242, 243;
Burr, Col., elected Vice President, 51; 1852, 254; 1856, 275, 278, 289.
difficulty of, with Jefferson, 64 Court, Supreme, organization of, 80;

Justices of, 372.
Calhoun, J. C., Secretary of War, 81; Crawford, W. H., Secretary of Treas-
elected Vice President, 106.

ury, 81; candidate for President,
California, admission of, 252, 361.

106.
Campaign, Presidential, 1840, 198; 1844, Creole, The, case of, 212.

224; 1848, 240 ; 1852, 253; 1856, 271. Cuba, negotiation for, 817.
Cass, Lewis, candidate for President,

242; Secretary of State, 296. Debts, public, 81.

151;

Democrats, name of, assumed, 65; rap- | Iowa, admission of, 228, 361.

ture of, in Congress, 71; policy of,

127, 164, 200, 226, 243, 254, 278, 318. Jackson, General, candidate for Presi-
Departments, Heads of the, 371.

dent, 106; elected, 119; inaugura-
Deposits, removal of, 154.

ted, 122 ; political views of, 128,
Dred Scott, case of, 802.

130 ; controversy with Calhoun,

133; Cabinet resigns, 135; re-elect-
Elections of the States, annual, time ed, 151 ; inaugurated, 153; cen-
of, 875.

sured by the Senate, 158.
Electoral vote for President, 364, 368. Jefferson, Thomas, on the ordinance,
Electoral votes, number of, to each 22 ; Secretary of State, 30; politi-
State, 369.

cal views, 36; leaves the Cabinet;
Ellsworth, O., 25.

Presidential candidate, 44; elec-
Embargo, 66, 72.

tion of, 51; inauguration of, 56;
England, difficulties with, 65, 69.

re-elected, 64; retirement of, 68.
English Bill, 300.
Essex Junto, 53.

Kansas and Nebraska Act, 274.

Kansas, organization of, 261; bill for
Federalists, 29; defeat of, 50; causes relief of, 265, 294; constitution for,
of defeat, 53; policy of, 127.

299; bill for admission of, 299, 300;
Fillmoro, M., candidate for Vice Pres- relief of, 316 ; legislation for, 362.

ident, 243; succeeds to the Presi- Kentucky admitted, 40, 359.
dency, 251; candidate for Presi- King, R., candidate for Vice President,
dent, 287,

68; for President, 80.
Fishing, bounties for, 40.

Know Nothing or American party, or-
Florida, admission of, 228, 360.

ganization of, 287; nomination,
Florida War, 202, 223.

289; principles, 290.
France, trouble with, 44, 47; peace

with, 49 ; troubles renewed, 163. L'Amistad, case of, 197: captives of,
Fremont, J. C., candidate for Presi- discharged, 198.
dent, 275.

Lands, Public, 120, 165; price reduced,
Fugitive Slave Law (1793), 41 ; of 1850, 264; present condition, 380 ; quan-
252.

tity sold, 382; ensuing to the States
Funds of the States, School and Liter- for Railroads, 383; donated as
ature, 384.

swamp, etc., 883; for warrants,

etc., 381.
Georgia, State of, 358.

Legislatures of the States, their time
Giddings, J. R., censured by the House, of meeting, 375.
212.

Lexington, battle of, 18.
Government, Colonial, 9; Federal, seat Locofoco, origin and application of, 162.
of, established, 32.

Louisiana, 259.
Hale, J. P., candidate for President, Madison, J., nomination of, for Presi.
256.

dent, 67; inaugurated, 69; election
Hamilton, Alexander, Secretary of of, 73.

Treasury, 30; political views, 36; Mail, United States, Anti-Slavery doc-
censure of, 41, 43.

uments in, 183.
Harrison, W. H., candidate for Presi. Maine, admission of, 87, 360.

dent, 169, 199; elected, 202; inau. Mason, Col., 25.
gurated, 204; death, 205.

Mexican War, 230; Congress on, 231;
Hartford Convention, 74.

Gadsden treaty with, 264.
Hayne, R. Y., 131.

Michigan admitted, 166, 360.
Hunkers, 241, 243.

Militia, law regulating the, 40.

Ministers, Foreign, 46.
Illinois admitted, 82, 360.

Mint, establishment of, 163.
Illiterate white adults in the several Mississippi admitted, 82, 359.

States, 389 ; ratio of, to the whole Missouri, admission of, 87, 360.
population, 390.

Monroe, J., nomination of, for Presi-
Improvements, Internal, History of, dent, 80; re-elected, 99.

82, 100, 131, 141, 162, 201, 221, 237,
264, 293.

Natives of Slave States in Free States
Independence, Declaration of, 19.

and vice versa, 378.
Indiana admitted, 82, 359.

Naturalization, laws for, 58.
Interior, Department of, created, 246. Neutrality, Act declaratory of, 48.

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North Americans, 289.

| Slavery, in Congress, 33; prohibition
Nullification, 131, 144, 150.

of, in Louisiana, 63; abolition of, in

New Jersey, 63; in District of Co-
Ohio, admitted, 59, 359.

lumbia, 253; legislation on, 272;
Office, removal and appointment, 57, under the Constitution, 311.
123.

Slaveholders, number of, in the United
Ordinance of 1787, 22 ; suspension of, States, 377.
39; text of the, 318.

Slaves, property in, 311.
Oregon, settlement of, 218; title to, Slave Trade, re-opening of, 318.

219, 227; American rights in, 236; Society, National Anti-Slavery, origin
government, 245; admitted as a of, 180; principles of, 185.
State, 316.

Speakers of the House of Representa-

tives, 374.
Panama Mission, 114.

Specie Circular, 167, 171.
Parties, growth of, 30; fundamentals Stamp Act, 13.

of, 39; candidates of, 1796, 44; con- States, a chronological statement of,
dition of, 1801, 57; 1813, 74 ; union 356.
of, 87; revival of, 126 ; changes in States, admission, 356; population, 376;
1856, 271; status of, 318.

area, 379; school funds of, 384.
Party, Free Soil, organization of, 244. Stevenson, A., resigns the Speaker's
Patriot War, 195.

Chair, 160; Minister to England,
Petitions to Congress, 179.

160.
Pierce, F., candidate for President, Sub-Treasury, 161, 174, 197, 206, 237.
254; inaugurated, 259.

Sumner, Charles, assault upon, 269.
Pinckney, c. C., candidate for Presi.
dent, 68.

Taney, R. B., Chief Justice, 168.
Platforms of 1852, 254, 257 ; 1856, Re- | Tariff, 30, 77, 100; change of parties on,

publican, 275; Democratic, 279; 101; of 1828, 116, 130; of 1831-2,
American, 290.

143; of 1833, 149 ; 220, 316.
Policy, Foreign, 42.

Taylor, General, candidate for Presi-
Polk, J. K., Speaker, 164; re-elected, dent, 243; inaugurated, 247; death

175; candidate for President, 226; of, 251.
inaugurated, 229.

Taxation, 12, 47.
Population of States and Territories, Tea, tax on, 15.
379.

Territories acquired from Mexico, or.
Postage, reduction of, 228, 264, 293 ; at- ganization of, 249; of Kansas and
tempted increase of, 317.

Nebraska, 261.
Post office organized, 40.

Territories of U.S., organization, 361 ;
President, laws regulating tho election area and population of, 380.
of, 40, 112.

Texas, annexation of, 193, 215, 224;
President, popular vote for 1856, 370. boundary of, 252.
Presidents, pro tempore, of the Senate, Tompkins, D. D., nomination of, for
374.

Vice President, 80; re-elected

Vice President, 99.
Randolph, leader of the House, 65. Treasury notes, issue of, 301, 316.
Representatives, apportionment of, 40, Treaty with England, 21, 43; with

58, 139, 212; number of, 369, 372. Spain, 98; with England, 264;
Republican, name of, assumed, 40; na- Troops sent to Colonies, 15.

tional, organization, 136; reorgani- Tyler, J., candidate for Vice President,
zation, 274; position of, 318.

199; becomes President, 205; rup-
Resolution, expunging, 170.

ture with the Whigs, 208; politi-
Retrenchment, 117, 121.

cal antecedents, 208; vetoes, 207,
Revenue, distribution of, 120, 165, 168. 210.
Rutledge, J., 25.

Van Buren, Martin, Secretary of State,
School, Agricultural, lands for, 301, 122; resigns, 135; Minister to Eng.
817.

land, 139; nomination for Vice
Schools, number of, in United States, President, 151; elected President,
388; funds of, 384.

169; inaugurated, 173; re-nomina-
Scott, Gen., candidate for President, ted, 200; candidate for President,
254.

244.
Senators, number of, 369.

Vermont admitted, 40.
Settlers, Protection of, 301.
Seward, W. H., 253, 269.

War, declaration of, 72.

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