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ness of its leaders; seconded by the commanding influence of General Washington. During the latter years of General Washington's administration the executive could not rely upon a majority in the House, while in the Senate the casting vote of the Vice-President was frequently called into requisition to save the Administration from defeat. The Federal strength was found in thickly populated localities where culture, social order, wealth and refinement prevailed. While the liberal ideas fostered by the opposition prevailed through all the sparsely settled districts, and all along the frontier range where respect for law is modified by the necessary disorganization which attends the filling up of a new country, Massachusetts and Connecticut, sustained generally by the other New England States, were the peculiar strongholds of Federal power. South Carolina, through the wealthy population along her seaboard, co-operated for a time with the eastern States, but was ultimately forced to yield to the popular will. Virginia was essentially Anti-Federal, and was an index of the policy pursued by the growing States south and west of her borders. While Delaware stood unflinchingly Federal, New Jersey and Maryland wavered. Pennsylvania and New York, the great battle ground whereon the destinies of parties were cast, extending the line of their frontiers, and augmenting their population with bold and enthusiastic pioneers, inclined more and more to the Republican side.

Irresistible influences were everywhere at work creating opposing factions. The government was organized on a plan novel in its character, and well calculated to create diversity of opinion relative to the details of its administration. The Administration was constrained to throw itself between the people and Great Britain, in order to avert those disastrous consequences which the continued

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SOURCES OF PARTY STRENGTH.

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insolence of England rendered imminent, and the hatred which the people entertained towards that country was insensibly transferred to the Administration. France, on the other hand, was cherished with fond admiration. The insults she offered our government were lightly regarded by the people, and to their discredit be it said, they were indignant that these agressions were rebuked with a spirit that became the dignity of an independent nation.

On none of these questions could the Administration remain passive. Again, the rapid expansion of the country involved a necessary increase of expenditures by the government. It answered the purpose of party, that the increase existed ; the cause was not sought after.

The Federal party, exhausted from the reaction of its persistent effort to arouse and prepare the people to repel the insults and encroachments of foreign countries, was illy conditioned to bear up under the combination of home influences which were forced upon it. Overborne, it at last fell before its successful rival. It fell not without honor.

To it belonged the proud distinction of having laid the foundation of the governmental structure, and also of having reared the machinery for its operation. Its principles survived the party. Federal measures were denounced and overthrown, only to be, very generally, reestablished and maintained by the party that succeeded to office, as sound and equitable principles, wisely adapted to promote the highest good of the country and the well-being of the people.

CHAPTER V.

ADMINISTRATION OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1801-1809.

Thomas JEFFERSON was inaugurated President of the United States on the 4th of March, 1801, at the City of Washington; to which place the seat of government had been transferred during the administration of his prede

cessor.

President Jefferson organized his Cabinet by the appointment, with the consent of the Senate, of James Madison, of Virginia, Secretary of State; Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts, Secretary of War; and Levi Lincoln, same State, Attorney-General. Samuel Dexter and Benjamin Stoddart were continued for a short time in the departments of the Treasury and Navy. Their successors were Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, and Robert Smith, of Maryland. Gideon Granger, of Connecticut, was appointed Postmaster-General. The head of this department was first recognized as a member of the Cabinet under General Jackson.

Mr. Jefferson commenced his administration under most favorable and auspicious circumstances. The European difficulties, which, at the opening and during the entire official term of his predecessor, threatened to imperil the peace

if not the existence of the government, were being harmoniously adjusted, thus affording security to

GROWTH OF REPUBLICANISM.

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American commerce. The responsibility of framing institutions and providing for their maintenance, had fallen upon the Administration just driven from power. The finances of the country were prosperous, and the increasing development of material resources was everywhere augmenting individual wealth and national strength. The future seerned prosperous and inviting, and Mr. Jefferson, in his inaugural, intimated his desire to mollify the asperities of parties, and to blend the hitherto warring factions in harmonious union.

The Republicans were everywhere in the ascendant, or rapidly acquiring strength. Their triumph in New York City, in 1800, secured that State to the Administration, and ranged it alongside of Pennsylvania, already Republi

Out of New England, Delaware alone maintained her federal supremacy. In New England, Rhode Island had surrendered to Republicanism. Vermont hung in the balance, and Massachusetts gave evidences of weakness, having elected five Republicans out of her congressional delegation of fourteen.

can.

REMOVALS FROM OFFICE.

The favorable deductions drawn by the Federalists from Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address respecting removals from office, were not destined to be fully realized. Some removals were made by the President, among which was that of Elizur Goodrich as collector at New Haven, and the appointment in his place of Samuel Bishop, a man seventy-seven years of age. He was declared incompetent by prominent citizens of that place, in their correspondence with the President. In reply, the President remarked that, with hardly an exception, all offices were held by members of the Federal party; that the recent election had shown the Republicans to be in the majority, and “ political tolerance” required a counteraction of the policy pursued by his predecessor, which had excluded all Republicans from office. He could only produce an equalization by removals to some extent, which he should do with great care and deliberation, and the appointment of members of the dominant party to office.

The charge made by Mr. Jefferson against the policy of his predecessor was not strictly in point. Mr. Adams had made very few removals of those whom he found in office when he became President. The appointments made by Gen. Washington were, for the most part, prior to the organization of parties, and consequently could not have been made with reference to Federal or Anti-Federal distinctions.

The seventh Congress convened at Washington on the 7th of December, 1801. There was a large administration majority in both branches. Mr. Macon was chosen Speaker of the House, by fifty-three votes to twenty-six for Mr. Bayard.. Abraham Baldwin was elected President pro tem. of the Senate. A stenographer was admitted for the first time, to the floor of the Senate, at this session. The President, contrary to former practice, communicated his message to Congress in writing.

At this session an apportionment of representatives was made, in accordance with the second census. The ratio of 33,000 was readopted. The naturalization law was modi

. fied. By the act of 1790 an alien might be admitted as a citizen after a two years' residence, by an application to the court in any

State where he had resided for one year. The act of 1795 required a residence of five years, and an application three years prior to admission. An act of 1798 extended the time of residence to fourteen years, previous application to five. The act passed at this ses

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