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State Normal School, 17.5 per cent; State Manual Training Normal School, 17.5 per cent; Fort Hays State Normal School, 10 per cent. The budget was placed at $4,500, but it proved unnecessary to spend the full amount.

Dr. George F. Zook, the director of the survey, spent the period from April 3 to June 20 in Kansas. President Coffman was in the State during the two weeks beginning with April 10. Dean Mann spent nearly three weeks in the field work, beginning April 1. Mr. Christensen was in Kansas for about six weeks.

All the members of the survey staff spent some time at each of the five higher institutions. In order to obtain accurate and adequate information, Doctor Zook and Mr. Christensen made several visits to each institution.

At the conclusion of President Coffman's and Dean Mann's field work the survey commission agreed upon a number of tentative conclusions, which, together with subsequent suggestions through correspondence, were embodied in a tentative draft of a report. This report was considered at length by all the members of the survey staff at a conference held in Indianapolis, Ind., June 22 and 23. At that time there were suggested certain modifications, changes, and additions which have been embodied in the present report. The report, including a number of recommendations, has been adopted unanimously by the commission. The statements of facts contained in the report have been confirmed by officials at the several institutions, although, of course, they are in no way responsible for the conclusions which have been reached.

The survey commission was very much gratified at the cordial spirit of cooperation shown by all the officials and members of the faculty at the several higher institutions. The commission takes this opportunity to thank these persons for their invaluable assistance, which was always freely and gladly given. It also wishes to express to the State board of administration its deep appreciation of the fine spirit exhibited by all the members in their ardent desire to cooperate in every move for the betterment of higher education in Kansas. In submitting this report, including certain recommendations, the commission has endeavored to present a constructive program which will assist the State of Kansas to go forward to greater and greater accomplishments in higher education.

REPORT OF A SURVEY OF THE STATE INSTITU

TIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN KANSAS.

Chapter I.

GENERAL BACKGROUND.

THE PEOPLE AND THEIR INDUSTRIES. Kansas is one of the greatest rural States in the Union. According to the census of 1920, of its population of 1,769,257, 65.1 per cent live in rural districts or in villages of 2,500 inhabitants or less. Of the land area of the State 86.8 per cent is in farms, of which over two-thirds is reported as improved. On these farms are grown more wheat and alfalfa than in any other State in the Union, while only five or six States exceed Kansas in the acreage of corn. Hay, oats, kafir, barley, and potatoes are also important crops; while horses, mules, cattle, swine, and poultry are of primary importance as livestock. Dairy and poultry products are also of considerable value. There are in the State 156,286 farms, with a total of 45,425,179 acres, nearly 58 per cent of which is cultivated by owners. The total value of all farm property is given as $3,302,806,187.

Notwithstanding the predominance of farm life in Kansas, other occupations, including transportation and manufacturing, occupy important places in the economic life of the State. The capital invested in manufacturing amounted in 1919 to $357,000,000, while the total value of manufactured products, including the cost of raw materials, reached $913,000,000, an amount exceeding the value of the agricultural products by over $200,000,000. In the southeastern part of the State coal mining is important, while oil and gas in large quantities are found in the south central region.

During the last three decades the increase in population in Kansas has not kept pace with the rest of the country. From 1890 to 1900 the increase in population was only 3 per cent; from 1900 to 1910, 15 per cent; and from 1910 to 1920, 4.6 per cent. In 1920 the population was 1,769,257, as against 1,428,108 in 1890, or a net increase of only 341,149, or 22.5 per cent in 30 years. In general this slow growth in population has been due to the fact that the State contains no large cities, which, as is well known, have in recent years absorbed much of the increase in population.

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The lack of large cities also explains the fact that the population is particularly homogeneous in character. Of the population 96.6 per cent is white; 3.3 per cent colored; 1 per cent Indian; and an insignificant number of people represent other races. Of the total population, only 110,578, or 6.25 per cent are foreign born, and these are distributed very well over the State. There is not a county in the State where the foreign-born population runs as high as 15 per cent. Such foreign-born whites as are found in the State come principally from Germany, Mexico, Russia, and Sweden.

ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IN KANSAS. In the State constitution of 1859 provision was made for a State superintendent of public instruction, elected by the voters every two years, who "shall have the general supervision of the common-school funds and educational interests of the State.”'' Acts of the State legislature later authorized the State superintendent to apportion to each county the income from these funds, together with the annual taxes collected by the State; to compile educational statistics; and to serve as the ex officio chairman of the State board of education, which is composed of the following additional members: The chancellor of the State university, the president of the State agricultural college, the presidents of the three State normal schools, and three county or city superintendents appointed by the governor.

The State board of education is authorized to prescribe the courses of study for the public schools of the State, including district schools, graded schools, and high schools; to define standards for them; and to accredit them in accordance with these standards. It also issues State teachers' certificates in accordance with regulations which it has established, including certificates to graduates of colleges which meet certain standards adopted by the board. The board of education has also been designated by State law to cooperate with the Federal Board for Vocational Education in the administration of the Smith-Hughes law.

The schools in each county of the State are under the general supervision of a county superintendent of public instruction, who apportions school funds, inspects schools, holds teachers' institutes, and keeps educational records of the schools in his county. In effect this statement applies only to the rural communities and small villages, inasmuch as all cities of 2,000 or over are under the jurisdiction of local boards of education.

According to the United States census report for 1920, there were in Kansas 255,474 children 7 to 13 years of age, of whom 241,531, or 94.5 per cent were in school. The same report showed only 22,821 persons 10 years of age and over in the State who were unable to write. Of this number nearly one-half were persons of foreign birth, and 4,228 were negroes. Few States in the Union have as high a percentage of literacy as Kansas.

According to reports received by the Bureau of Education from the State superintendent of public instruction, the total enrollment in the elementary schools for 1919-20 was 367,490.

The fact that such a large number and proportion of the children of the State are enrolled in the elementary schools is a testimony of the strong passion which the people of Kansas have for education. It accounts, furthermore, in part for the desire on the part of the citizens to improve the condition of elementary schools, particularly those in rural communities. With better elementary school facilities, including the consolidation of rural schools, there would be laid yet a better basis for effective work in the secondary schools, without which it is impossible to expect extensive development of higher education.

Notwithstanding the drawbacks which face the elementary school system in Kansas, according to the Bureau of Education statistics for 1919-20, Kansas ranks fifth in the Union in the proportion of population 14 to 18 years of age attending secondary schools. It is exceeded only by California, Nevada, Washington, and Oregon. The percentage of this age group in these five States enrolled in secondary schools was, California, 86.6; Nevada, 53.3; Washington, 50.6; Oregon, 49.9; Kansas, 43.2. Kentucky and Mississippi bring up the rear with 11.9 and 13.4, respectively. The average for the country is 28.4. (Table No. 1.)

Other statistics show that Kansas ranks sixth among the States in the proportion of the total number of school pupils who are enrolled in the high schools. (Table No. 2.)

Figures compiled by the State superintendent of public instruction covering the period fron 1900-1901, to 1919-20, show that highschool attendance in Kansas increased from 16,479 in 1900-1901, to 60,110, in 1919-20. (Table No. 3.)

RESIDENCE OF STUDENTS IN THE HIGHER INSTITUTIONS.

A short time ago the United States Bureau of Education made an exhaustive study of the residence of students in the higher institutions, including both publicly and privately controlled institutions, The results of this study showed that there were during the year 1920-21 the following number of people in each State to each college student resident in the State: (1) Oregon, 112; (2) Iowa, 128; (3) Utah, 137; (4) Kansas, 151; (5) Nebraska, 151; (6) Washington, 155. In other words, Kansas ties with Nebraska, for the honor of being fourth in the Union. Arkansas and Tennessee bring up the rear with 566 and 604 people, respectively, to each college student. (Table No. 4.)

An examination was then made to see what proportion of college and university students attended higher institutions located within their respective home States. This table is valuable as indicating the drawing power of the institutions on their own students. In this respect Kansas ranks ninth in the Union, being exceeded by California, Oregon, Utah, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, Minnesota, and Ohio. Of Kansas students 79.2 per cent remain in their home State for their college education. The average for the country is 74.3 per cent.

The total number of Kansas college and university students who are in higher institutions is 11,786. Of this number, 2,451 go to institutions located in other States. To replace these students, only 1,159 students from other States come to Kansas for their education. In other words, Kansas higher institutions are taking care of 1,292 fewer college and university students than all its residents attending universities and colleges. Obviously the Kansas institutions do not have a drawing power on students outside of Kansas equal to that of the outside institutions on Kansas students. In this connection it would seem as if Kansas ought to look forward to providing higher educational opportunities of sufficient quality and variety to draw into its institutions as many students if not more than it has students to educate. In this way it would become known as an educational center which draws more students than it sends out. The following are the most important States which have this distinction: Oregon, California, New York, Illinois, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Missouri, Michigan, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Maryland.

Reference to the statistical tables shows that Kansas sends 134 students to California, and receives 16 from there; 310 to Colorado, and receives 70; 538 to Illinois, and receives 39; Iowa, 68, and receives 40; Massachusetts, 59, and receives 4; Michigan, 53, and receives 5; Mississippi, none, and receives 273; Missouri, 483, and receives 191; Nebraska, 202, and receives 47; New York, 93, and receives 8; Ohio, 47, and receives 6; Oklahoma, 101, and receives 211; Pennsylvania, 45, and receives 2; Texas, 9, and receives 63; and Wisconsin, 45, and receives 4.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HIGHER

INSTITUTIONS.

In the constitution of Kansas of 1859 there is a section which states: The legislature shall encourage the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific, and agricultural improvement by establishing a uniform system of common schools and schools of higher grade, embracing normal, preparatory, collegiate, and university departments.

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