« ForrigeFortsett »
which are open to graduates of the university or other comparable institutions. In addition to these fellowships, the university about 10 years ago very wisely began the policy of offering annually a fellowship to a graduate of ability and promise at 10 of the privately supported colleges in the State. These fellowships have stimulated and encouraged a large amount of graduate work at the university.
Largely as a result of the stimulus received from the organization of the National Research Council in Washington the university a few years ago appointed a research committee to whom is left the distribution of an annual research fund of $4,000. The fund is granted to members of the faculty for the purpose of paying expenses in connection with the conduct of particular research projects approved by the committee. The results of this annual grant have been most beneficial, not only in increasing the amount of valuable research done at the university, but also in checking up the research activities of each member of the faculty.
The research activities of the university have also been encouraged by the publication facilities offered by the university in connection with the Humanistic Studies, the Science Bulletin, the Biological Survey, the Geological Survey, and industrial research in chemistry. It has been customary for the university to set aside annually $500 each for the Humanistic Studies and the Science Bulletin. The Biological Survey receives $900 per year. The Geological Survey uses annually about $2,500 of its appropriation for publication purposes.
The commission is convinced that the university has wholly inadequate facilities for publishing research results. The infrequent appearance of monographs through the Humanistic Studies and the Science Bulletin provides an exceedingly meager avenue for the publication of research monographs. The State university should by all means provide more adequate means to make available to citizens of Kansas and other States the very valuable contributions to scientific and humanistic knowledge which are being made by the faculty and graduate students at the university.
The center of research at the agricultural college has naturally been the agricultural experiment station, which was established at Manhattan following the passage of the Hatch Act by Congress in 1887. According to this act and the subsequent Adams Act in 1906, each State in the Union now receives annually $30,000 per year for the conduct of agricultural research. At Manhattan fairly generous additions to this sum have been made through the annual appropriations received from the State.
The college has wisely been following the policy of employing members of the agricultural faculty, who are expected to devote
a part of their time to teaching and a part to investigation. In this manner the maximum efficiency of men is secured both for resident instruction and for research.
The agricultural college has also established an engineering experiment station which has worked under the same difficulties as the one at the university.
Although the agricultural college was authorized in 1877 to confer the degree of master of science, the graduate work of the institution is really of fairly recent origin. Graduate study is now in charge of a council of representatives from the several divisions of the college. The conditions established for the master of science degree are much the same as at other reputable graduate schools. No attempt has yet been made to do graduate work beyond that represented by the master's degree.
During the year 1921–22 there were 158 persons registered for graduate work. Of this number, 96 were regular members of the teaching staff and 9 were graduate assistants on half time.
Sixty-two persons have received the master of science degree during the last 10 years, as follows:
... 6 | 1917......
.... 4 | 1918..... 1914..
8 1919...... 1915.
.. 7 | 1921. ....... Of the total number, 19 were in agriculture, 39 in general science, 1 in home economics, and 3 in engineering.
Inasmuch as the college did not raise its entrance requirements to 15 units until 1913, there were during the year just closed 10 graduates of the institution registered for graduate work who were required to complete "supplementary minors” in order to clear the way for a standard master's degree. Two students from other agricultural colleges were required to do the same thing.
The commission was pleased to see the interest which the agricultural college is taking in the development of graduate and research work. As is the case with the university, there is an unusual opportunity for the State to develop a noteworthy institution for leadership in the great Southwest. Nothing will contribute to this end more than adequate attention to advanced research work in the major functions of the college.
REGULATORY AND POLICE WORK. Among the noteworthy results of research in the laboratories of higher institutions has been the discovery of remedies for the prevention of diseases in plant, animal, and human life. After the conditions producing these diseases had been brought to light, it was natural that the State should take steps to eradicate them. Accordingly, from time to time the several States, including Kansas, have passed laws establishing organizations to prevent or eliminate disease conditions or causes and to insure the use of standard materials.
In 27 States these duties, so far as they relate to agriculture, have been conferred on independent officials or State boards, as, for example the board of agriculture; in 9 States these duties are divided between such State officials and the State agricultural college; and in 6 States they are carried on only by the agricultural colleges. It will be seen, therefore, that State officials and State boards are doing much more of the police and regulatory work than the agricultural colleges. If the opinions of agricultural college officials prevail, the agricultural colleges will be entirely relieved of this work. Statements secured for the commission from 41 of the agricultural colleges in the country showed only 4 institutions favorable to the agricultural college performing these duties and 37 opposed.
The following replies are typical of those received from the several States:
"I feel that the time and energies of experiment station men should not be burdened with work of this nature."
"I believe that the best way is for the State to have one division for research work and a separate division for regulatory work.”
“We oppose it, believing that this duty belongs to the administrative branch of the State government."
"Whether such laws should be administered by the experiment station depends upon conditions in the State. I favor administration under conditions that prevail here."
"I think that the administration of such laws by the station, on the whole does more harm than good to the station itself. The station is, or should be, a research institution, and such police duties more logically belong to the State department of agriculture.”
"My observation has been that the loading of the experiment station with police work has detracted from and interfered with investigations."
In Kansas both the agricultural college and the university have been charged by State law with the regulation of certain important police and control functions. Among these duties at the university are: Testing of water supply for municipalities; testing of food products; testing for certain diseases; and in conjunction with the agricultural college, State entomological work. At the agricultural college these functions are naturally more extensive than at the university, including control of commercial fertilizer sales; commercial feeding stuffs; live stock remedies; live stock registry; dairy work; licensing the sale of anti-hog-cholera serum; entomological work; and the testing of road materials used in the construction of Federal aid roads.
In the consideration of the establishment of regulatory and police duties at the State institutions of higher learning, it should be realized that there are two very different functions to be performed, (1) the
detection and location of disease-producing conditions or the presence of nonstandard materials through laboratory tests, following which is (2) the actual police duty of eliminating or removing the illegal conditions or enforcing the use of standard materials and ingredients.
The first function is an educational function which can naturally be performed best where, as at the State universities and colleges, there are extensive scientific laboratories staffed with specialists from a variety of fields. The opportunity to conduct the research incident to this control work keeps the staff in constant contact with the problems which usually are being subjected to further research for the discovery of improved methods to combat disease-producing conditions or higher standards for materials and ingredients. The research, therefore, necessary in connection with police and control work is an eminently proper and very desirable function for the institutions of higher learning to perform for the State.
On the other hand, State universities and colleges were never established and should not now exist to govern the State. The functions of these institutions are teaching and research. Police and control work is administrative in character and belongs properly to the administrative arm of the State government. With proper organization, laws of this character can be executed effectively by State officials and boards, thus relieving the higher institutions of the embarrassments of administrative work, in order that the faculty may devote their undivided attention to the legitimate functions of the institutions.
That this opinion is shared by the great body of educational administrators in higher institutions is evident from reports which from time to time have been presented to the Association of LandGrant Colleges. The following report made by the committee on experiment station organization and policy in 1915 is typical:
In addition to the three divisions of the agricultural college which we have now begun to recognize in research, college teaching, and extension, we now recognize at least one other group which has to do with regulation—the machinery for the enforcement of laws for the protection or promotion of agriculture. This is not experimental, although the need for it and the methods for it often were developed by the experiment stations. They should continue to furnish information on which it is based. But logically it is just as much a part of the State governmental machinery as the enforcement of other laws and measures. The States should prepare to take care of it, and in many cases they are now in far better condition to do this than formerly. The retention of such measures by the agricultural college is retarding the formation of strong State departments of agriculture, which it is the interest of the colleges to promote.
Is there any more reason for making the experiment station a part of the governmental machinery of a State in the enforcement of these laws than there would be in intrusting to a college department of education the enforcement of any good education law which it had suggested? Or to the college of pharmacy the oversight of laws which it has urged? The assignment of regulatory functions to an educational institution is to be justified only on the grounds of temporary expediency. It diverts attention from the real work and purpose of the institution, and it often places the institution in a wrong attitude before the people. It is a confusion of government and education.
. For the reasons which have been set forth the commission is clearly
of the opinion that the university and the agricultural college should be relieved of the administrative duties incident to police and control work and that these duties should be conferred on officials and properly organized boards at the State capitol, while leaving to the respective institutions the testing necessary to carry out the intentions of the laws. For this work there should be financial arrangements which make it unnecessary for the higher institutions to use funds granted to them for other purposes.
SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AT MANHATTAN. Until 1913 a preparatory school was maintained at the State agricultural college. At that time on account of the increasing highschool facilities in the State it was decided that there was no further need for the institution to maintain a preparatory school, and accordingly it was abolished. However, in view of the constant demand for vocational work, particularly in agriculture, a demand which at that time could not be satisfied elsewhere in the State, it was decided to establish a secondary vocational school. The objects of this school are very well set forth in the college catalogue, as follows:
The school of agriculture is organized to meet the needs of young men and young women of Kansas who may need instruction more closely identified with the life of the farm, home, and shop than that provided by the high schools of the State. It is
cause unable to complete an extensive course of collegiate instruction, yet who feel the necessity of a practical training for their activities in life. A large part of the student's time in the school will be spent in the laboratories and in contact with the real objects of his future work. An element of culture and general information is provided for in several semesters of English for each course and in work in history, economics, citizenship, physics, and chemistry.
The school of agriculture is not a school preparatory to the college. Its sole purpose is to fit men and women for life in the open country, and to make country life more attractive; to make the workshop more efficient; in short, to dignify and to improve industrial life.
Students who are 14 years of age or older and who have completed the eighth grade are admitted to the school without an examination. There are three-year curricula in the three fields of agriculture, home economics, and the mechanic arts. The registration in the school since its establishment has been as follows: 1913-14. 658 | 1918-19......
. 216 1914-15........ .560 | 1919-20...
.. 1 244 1915-16... 484 1920-21..........
2 280 1916-17 422 1921-22.
3 280 1917-18
231 1 Including 30 Veterans' Bureau men. 2 Including about 90 Veterans' Bureau men. 3 Including 143 Veterans' Bureau men.