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branch normal school were to be used to equip and maintain the institution. The course of study, as at the present normal in Emporia, was not to extend over two years beyond the high school.

Owing to unforeseen difficulties school was not opened in the branch normal until June, 1902. For two years the old Fort Hospital served for classroom purposes. Since that time the following buildings have been erected: Woman's building, 1906; power plant; dairy and creamery; Academic Hall; Sheridan Coliseum, 1916. The school owns 4,000 acres, about 85 acres of which are used as a campus.

In 1903 the State legislature, responding to the demand of the southeastern part of the State for teacher-training facilities, established at Pittsburg an auxiliary or branch normal training school, likewise with a two-year course of study. Its buildings at present comprise Russ Hall (containing the library, training school, administrative offices, and recitation rooms); Carney Hall (home economics, biology, and physical sciences); industrial arts building; power and heating plant; cafeteria; and barracks now used for gymnasium and automobile machine shop.

During the period that the branch normal schools were under the authority of the Emporia board of regents the legislature authorized the board (1905) to extend the length of the teacher-training courses to not less than three years and to confer such degrees as they deemed proper. Notwithstanding this extension of their functions, neither the parent normal at Emporia nor the two branches at Fort Hays and Pittsburg were satisfied with the centralized method of control. Accordingly, when the first board of administration was created in 1913 to take over the control of all the State institutions of higher learning, it was provided in the law that the new board was to have power to separate any branch school from its parent school and to name a president and other administrative officers for each institution. Accordingly, one of the early acts of the new board of administration, May 5, 1913, was to make the normal school at Pittsburg an independent institution. It has since been known as the “State Manual Training Normal School.”

A similar action with respect to the branch normal school at Fort Hays was delayed until there was secured from Congress an amendment to the act of 1900 which permitted the State to have the benefits of the previous land grant for the establishment of an independent normal school. Since that year, therefore, the institution has been recognized as entirely independent of the normal school at Emporia. It is now known as the "Fort Hays Kansas Normal School”

Chapter II.

THE STATE BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION.

BRIEF REVIEW OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BOARD.

In establishing institutions of higher learning it is necessary for the State through constitutional provision or legislative enactment to provide governing bodies who are responsible for the property of the institutions, the proper expenditure of the funds appropriated to or collected by them, the formulation of institutional policies, and the general administration of the institutions through the president and other officials whom they choose.

In Kansas, the university and the State agricultural college each had their respective boards of regents from the date of their establishment down to the year 1913. The university board was composed of six regents, with one honorary member; the agricultural college board consisted of seven members. A single board of regents composed of six regular members and three honorary members governed the normal school at Emporia and its two branches at Pittsburg and Fort Hays. In 1913 the State legislature abolished these three boards, together with the several boards having charge of the charitable, penal, and correctional institutions. In their places were erected three boards: (1) The State board of administration, to have charge of the university, the agricultural college, the three State normal schools, the school of mines at Weir, the school for the deaf at Olathe, and the school for the blind at Kansas City; (2) the State board of corrections, to have charge of the penal and correctional institutions; and (3) the State board of control, to have charge of the charitable and eleemosynary institutions. At the same time a central business office was arranged for the institutions under the control of the board of administration, and an attempt was made to cooperate with the other two State boards in the purchase of supplies and equipment.

After the educational, penal, correctional, and charitable institutions had been operated under these three respective boards for four years, the State legislature decided in 1917 to establish a single board of four paid members, including the governor, to have charge of all the State's institutions, with one or two unimportant exceptions. This board is known as the “State Board of Administration."

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REVIEW OF LEGISLATION IN OTHER STATES. In taking these steps toward the centralization of the government of the higher institutions into one board, the State of Kansas has by no means been unique, though it has undoubtedly been one of the pioneers in developing the movement in the direction of centralized control. In 1909 the State of West Virginia created a board of control to which was delegated full power to manage and govern all the penal, charitable, and correctional institutions, and to have charge of the financial and business affairs of the 12 State educational institutions, including the State university. This board is also authorized to supervise the erection of all new buildings and the repair of all existing buildings which belong to the State. There are three members of the board, each appointed by the governor for six years, at a salary of $5,000 per year.

In addition to the board of control there was, until 1919, a board of regents, which had charge of the educational work of the 12 State educational institutions. Among other things, this board was authorized to select the heads of the institutions, prescribe curricula, establish departments, fix tuition and fees, and make rules and regulations for the several institutions. Any action on the part of the board of regents which involved the expenditure of funds, including salary schedules, was subject to the approval of the board of control. In 1919 the board of regents was succeeded by the State board of education, which also has charge of elementary and secondary education. This board consists of seven members, the State superintendent of school and six additional persons appointed by the governor for terms of six years each. At least three of the six must be actively engaged in school work. Each receives a compensation of $1,000 per year. The board elects its own president, vice president, and a paid secretary, though the State superintendent of schools is designated as the chief executive officer of the board.

In Minnesota an attempt was made in 1901 to centralize the business of the University of Minnesota and the State normal schools in the State board of control, while leaving the educational affairs of the university and the normal schools to their respective boards of regents. The attempt proved unsatisfactory, however, and within a short time the university and normal school boards were again given full charge of the business affairs at their respective institutions, except that the board of control continues to supervise the erection of all new buildings and to purchase coal for the institutions as well as for the charitable and penal institutions directly under its charge.

In 1905 the Legislature of Florida abolished a considerable number of State educational institutions which had been established from time to time and in their places substituted the University of Florida, the Florida State College for Women, the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind, and the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes. The legislature also created a central board of control consisting of five members appointed by the governor for terms of four years each. The members of the board receive only their necessary expenses. At the present time there is an appropriation of $8,000 to cover these expenses and to pay the salaries of a secretary and clerks. It also receives an appropriation for the conduct of summer schools in the State.

The following extracts from the law of 1905 define the board's powers and relations with the State board of education:

Said board of control, except as herein provided, shall act in conjunction with, but at all times under and subject to the control and supervision of the State board! of education. * * * The board of control shall have jurisdiction over and complete management and control of all the said several institutions * * * and is hereby invested with full power and authority to make all rules and regulations necessary for their governance not inconsistent with the general rules and regulations made or which may be made at any joint meeting of the said board with the State board of education.

In Oklahoma, in 1911, provision was made for a State board of education which consisted of the superintendent of public instruction, ex officio, and six members appointed by the governor for overlapping terms of six years each.

The board was given general supervision over the public schools and replaced the separate governing boards of the University of Oklahoma, the normal schools, the Industrial Institute and College for Girls, the School of Mines and Metallurgy, the Colored Agricultural and Normal University, and a number of schools for the blind, deaf, and feeble-minded. The chief exception to this scheme of centralized control was the agricultural and mechanical college, which, together with several secondary schools of agriculture, was by the Statė constitution placed under the control of the State board of agriculture.

In 1919 the centralized control of the educational institutions under the State board of education was almost completely abolished. All the State institutions of higher learning, with the exception of the agricultural and mechanical college, as noted above, and the normal schools, control over which the State board of education retained, were again granted separate governing boards. The State board of education also has control over the schools for the blind and deaf for white children and over the newly created school of mines at Miami.

In addition to these boards there was created in 1909 a board of public affairs composed of three members appointed by the governor for terms concurrent with his term of office. This board has administrative control over the State penitentiary and hospitals.

It also has "charge of the construction, repair, maintenance, insurance, and operation of all buildings owned, used, or occupied by or on behalf of the State," and it has "authority to purchase all material and perform all other duties necessary in the construction, repair, or maintenance of all such buildings;" also itshall contract for, purchase and acquire all furnishings, furniture, and supplies of every kind or description for the use of the State or its officers, or the support of the several State institutions, including printing, stationery, fuel, tools, implements, furniture, books, food, clothing, and medical supplies where the law requires the State to furnish the same.

The laws of 1919 providing for separate governing boards for the university and other publicly controlled institutions of higher learning state that the board of public affairs shall exercise control over these institutions in "maintenance and purchasing supplies and the fiscal management thereof."

In Texas the University of Texas and the agricultural and mechanical college are under separate governing boards. However, the university board, as in Missouri, also controls the State school of mines, and the board of the agricultural and mechanical college also controls two junior colleges of agriculture, and as in Arkansas, the negro land-grant college.

In 1920 there was established a State board of control, whose duty it isto purchase all the supplies used by all the departments of the State government and all the normal schools of the State, University of Texas, and the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, and all other State schools heretofore or hereafter created, such purchase of supplies to include furniture and fixtures and to include all things except perishable goods, technical instruments, and books.

The supplies referred to are to be purchased by competitive bids.

In 1917 there was established in the State of Washington a "joint board of higher curricula,” composed of nine members,, namely, the presidents of the university and the State college; two regents each from the university and State college boards; one president of a State normal, chosen by the presidents of the three normal schools; and one trustee from each of the boards of the other two normal schools. This joint board was charged with the following duties: (1) To consider and make recommendations to the several institutional boards on matters of efficiency and economy in connection with the administration of the several institutions; (2) to survey the several institutions and make a biennial report to the governor, giving enrollments, attendance, and cost per student of operating and maintaining the several courses of study at each institution; (3) to approve all new professional or applied science curricula before they were introduced at any of the institutions; (4) to recommend changes in the mill-tax levy for the higher institutions, accompanied with the reasons for such changes.

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