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In the 1921 session of the legislature the joint board of higher curricula as established in 1917 was abolished and in its place there was created a board bearing the same name, which is composed of the presidents of the university and the State college, one normalschool president selected by the normal-school presidents, and four citizens in no way connected with the several institutions appointed by the governor.

Under both laws the individual governing boards at the several institutions were retained.

In 1909 an act of the State legislature in Oregon directed the governor to appoint, for terms of five years each, a nonpaid board of five members called "The board of higher curricula.” The law states that

The exclusive purpose and object of the board of higher curricula shall be to determine what courses of studies or departments, if any, shall not be duplicated in the higher educational institutions of Oregon, and to determine and define the courses of study and departments to be offered and conducted by each such institution.

In another section occurs the statement:

It is hereby made the duty of the board of higher curricula to visit the higher educational institutions, for the purpose of inquiring as to the work offered and conducted at such institutions, whenever and as often as it may deem necessary, and to specifically determine from time to time as occasion may require what courses or departments, if any, shall not, in their judgment, be duplicated in the several higher educational institutions and may direct the elimination of duplicated work from any institution, and to determine and define the courses of study and departments to be offered and conducted by each institution.

In the Oregon scheme the two boards of regents, at the university and the agricultural college, respectively, are retained for the purpose of performing such duties as are not by this act taken away from them. The law does not apply to the State normal school.

In 1909 the Iowa Legislature passed an act abolishing the several boards of regents at the State university, the agricultural and mechanical college, and the State college for teachers. In place of these governing bodies there was substituted a nonpaid State board of education, composed of nine members appointed by the governor, for terms of six years each. The board was authorized to electa president and treasurer for each of said educational institutions, and professors, instructors, officers, and employees; to fix the compensation to be paid to such officers and employees; to make rules and regulations for the government of said schools, not inconsistent with the laws of the State; to manage and control the property, both real and personal, belonging to said educational institutions; to execute trusts or other obligations now or hereafter committed to the institutions; to direct the expenditure of all appropriations the general assembly shall, from time to time, make to said institutions, and the expenditure of any other moneys; and to do such other acts as are necessary and proper for the execution of the powers and duties conferred upon them by law.

To assist in the management and government of the institutions of higher learning the State board of education was authorized to appoint a finance committee composed of three persons outside their own number, who are on a full-time basis, with salaries of $3,600 each per year. One of the members of this finance committee serves as secretary to the board. A business office is retained at each of the institutions.

According to an amendment to the State constitution of South Dakota, adopted in 1896, the State university, the State agricultural college, the normal schools, and all other educational institutions that are supported wholly or in part by the State are under the control of a board of five members appointed by the governor. Subsequent legislation has fixed the term of office for the members of this board, which is known as the regents of education, at six years.

In all things the regents are to administer the schools (higher institutions) in such a manner as to enable each of them to do in the best manner its own specific work, but all with a view to the strictest economy and so as to unify and harmonize the entire work of all the schools under their control.

Each member of the board receives a compensation of $1,000 per annum and necessary expenses.

In North Dakota the State legislature in 1915 created a State board of regents, composed of five members appointed by the governor for terms of six years, to replace the normal board of control and the boards of trustees of the higher institutions including the State university and the State agricultural college. The members of the board receive $7 per day and expenses when engaged in work for the State.

In 1919 the functions of this board were merged with the functions of the board of control which was in charge of the penal, charitable, and correctional institutions and with the functions of the State board of education in charge of elementary and secondary education. The new board is known as the board of administration. It consists of the State superintendent of public instruction, the commissioners of agriculture and labor as ex officio members, and three other persons appointed by the governor for terms of six years each with an annual salary of $3,000 per person. The board is required to install a system of accounting and auditing of all moneys received or expended. There is a secretary to the board and also a purchasing agent who not only buys the supplies for these institutions but also for all the departments of the State government.

In succeeding to the duties of the former State board of regents the board of administration is required to coordinate and correlate the work in the different institutions so as to prevent wasteful duplication and to develop cooperation among such institutions in the exchange of instructors and students. * * * It shall make recommendations in regard to needed

legislation for the institutions under its control, and it shall, prior to each meeting of the State legislature, and in ample time for due consideration by the legislative assembly, prepare a budget setting forth the financial needs of all State educational institutions under its supervision and control for the period for which an appropriation is made.

In Georgia, according to the constitution of 1877, the appropriations of public funds for other than "the elementary branches of an English education” may be made only to the University of Georgia. Accordingly when the other State institutions of higher learning, such as the State college of agriculture and the normal schools, were established they were placed under the jurisdiction of the university board of trustees. They are therefore departments or branches of the University of Georgia. However, the branch institutions have individual boards of trustees for local needs. In order to secure close correlation with these local boards the chairman of the university board names three ex officio members of his board to sit with each of the local boards.

In Montana, by a provision in the State constitution, the State university, the State normal college, the college of agriculture and mechanic arts, and the school of mines have been, since their establishment in 1893, jointly under the control of the State board of education. In 1913 it was decided to unify further the State's system of higher education by creating what is known as the University of Montana, which is composed of the institutions already named. The State board of education consists of 11 members, including the governor, the State superintendent of public instruction, the attorney general, and eight other persons appointed by the governor for terms of four years each. This board has general control and supervision over the institutions composing the University of Montana as well as the State orphans' home, the school for the deaf and blind, and the State reform school. It has authority to prescribe standards for the high schools of the State, to set the examinations for candidates from the elementary schools who desire promotion to the high schools, and to appoint instructors in the county teachers' institutes. It also appoints and fixes the compensation of the presidents and faculties of the various higher institutions. Furthermore, it appoints a chancellor of the University of Montana, whose duties and powers, within the limits of the State law, are prescribed by the State board of education. The law further states that it shall be the duty of this boardto take such steps and prescribe such rules as may be necessary to prevent unnecessary duplication of courses of instruction in the various educational institutions composing the University of Montana; to investigate carefully the needs of each of said institutions with reference to buildings, equipment, and instruction; to estimate the necessary appropriations required for such needs and to make recommendations to the legislative assembly accordingly.

The constitution of the State also provides that a board of examiners composed of the governor, secretary of state, and attorney general shall constitute a board of examiners with power to examine all financial claims against the State except salaries fixed by law. Under this provision and by subsequent legislation this board has had supervision and control of the expenditure of all money appropriated by the legislature for the use of the higher institutions. In 1921, additional laws provided that the budgets for all appropriations should be submitted through the State board of examiners, and that there should be established subordinate to this board a central purchasing department in charge of a State purchasing agent appointed by the governor. The purchasing agent has full authority under the board of examiners to purchase all supplies of any nature for all departments and institutions in the State.

In Idaho a law was passed in 1913 which provides for a "State board of education and board of regents of the University of Idaho." There are five members of the board appointed by the governor for terms of five years each. Each member receives his actual expenses and an honorarium of $100 per annum. The State superintendent of public instruction is an ex officio member of the board.

The Idaho Board of Education supervises and controls the public schools of the State, together with all the State educational institutions, including the school for the deaf and blind, the normal schools, the Idaho Technical Institute, and the University of Idaho. The board is authorized toclassify, standardize and define the limits of all instruction in the State educational institutions of the State and promote the efficiency, harmonize the educational interests and, so far as practicable, prevent wasteful duplication of effort in such institutions.

These duties, together with the budgets for each institution submitted to the State legislature and other matters of importance, are administered by a State commissioner of education, whom the State board of education selects for such term of office and at such compensation as seems to it desirable. The commissioner of education is therefore, with the exception of the duties conferred by the State constitution on the State superintendent of public instruction, the chief administrative officer for the State institutions of higher learning, as well as for the elementary and secondary systems of education.

There are other States where the government of the higher institutions has been linked up with the State officials in charge of elementary and secondary education. In Indiana a majority of the trustees of the State university are named by the State board of education. In Massachusetts the Massachusetts Agricultural College and the Lowell Textile School are placed in the department of education. In a number of States, for example, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, California, Illinois, Tennessee, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, and Massachusetts, the State normal schools are governed by the State board of education or a corresponding body

The purpose in reviewing the history of legislation in other States where there have been established central boards of control has been to show the growth of the movement in this direction and to call attention to the variations in the types and functions of these organizations. In Iowa and Idaho independent business officers at each of the higher institutions have been retained. In Washington and Oregon the character of the central organization of the higher institutions does not lend itself to a central business agency. In Montana and West Virginia the business control is separated from the central educational organization. In none of the States, except Kansas and North Dakota, are the higher institutions placed under the same administration with the charitable, penal, and correctional institutions. In several of them, on the other hand, as for example Montana, Idaho, West Virginia, North Dakota, and Iowa, the administration of the higher institutions is united with the same board that has charge of the other educational interests of the State in the fields of elementary and secondary education.

In establishing the central boards of control the legislatures in the several States have had in mind a variety of objectives, among which the following seem to be of chief importance: (1) The elimination of undesirable duplication of courses between and among two or more higher institutions; (2) the elimination of unwholesome rivalry and competition for State appropriations between and among the institutions; (3) the establishment of better business practices and the saving of money through the creation of a central business office and purchasing agency; (4) the gathering of data and statistics showing the cost of education and the needs of the several institutions based on such data; (5) the establishment of a State system of higher education, comparable in character to the system of elementary and secondary education; (6) the establishment of a unified State system of education in which the higher institutions are closely linked up with the system of elementary and secondary schools.

In the development of centralized administration of higher education in the several States, it is natural that some of the objectives outlined in the legislation of the States have been found to be more successful than others. A more extended discussion of the several points raised in connection with the objectives of central boards will perhaps help to clarify the situation.

There has undoubtedly been a persistent and growing popular demand, particularly in those States which have the land-grant colleges separated from the State universities, for the elimination of undesirable costly duplication of courses and departments of study.

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