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Engineering has always been one of the most troublesome sources of duplication wherever the land-grant college has been separated from the university. In all the States except Oregon and Indiana the universities as well as the agricultural colleges have developed engineering schools. In Massachusetts, where there is no State university, the engineering has been located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and not at the agricultural college.
The engineering curricula at the University of Kansas, as at other similar institutions, were established with a view to making engineering a profession comparable in importance and dignity with the older professions of law and medicine. In this expectation there has been a certain amount of disappointment even at the most prominent engineering schools, because as yet the engineering curriculum, particularly in the first two years, partakes of certain fairly elementary cultural and scientific subjects, which has prevented it from becoming exclusively professional in character. At the agricultural college and other institutions of its type, "mechanic arts” was for many years used rather loosely to include all forms of practical work with machinery, most of it of secondary character. Owing to the rapid develment of engineering science throughout the country, however, the agricultural colleges, as soon as they have dropped subcollegiate work, adopted engineering curricula which are similar in character to those at other engineering schools whether publicly or privately controlled.
As a result Kansas, as other States with separated institutions, has exactly comparable courses of study in civil engineering, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering. At the university, courses of study in mining engineering, architectural engineering, industrial engineering, engineering and administrative science, and chemical engineering have also been developed, while the agricultural college has curricula in flour-mill engineering and agricultural engineering.
The commission has studied the situation concerning the exact duplication of work in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering and wishes to dismiss at once any suggestion that this duplication should be eliminated. During the current year there were registered in civil engineering at the university 179 students, at the agricultural college, 167; in mechanical engineering 100 students at the university, at the agricultural college 127; in electrical engineering at the university 171 students, at the agricultural college 303. (Table 7.) All of the apparatus was being used to its capacity. The classes were with slight exceptions of normal size or over. To accommodate at one institution all the engineering students that one finds at both institutions would mean practically to double the buildings and equipment. Since the registration in those fields has reached the present number at the two institutions the question of increased expense to the State is practically negligible.
Moreover, it should be realized that even in civil engineering a working agreement has been reached between the two institutions which authorizes the university to develop fully highway engineering so far as it relates to cities and towns. The agricultural college, on the other hand, is given the function of developing highway engineering so far as it relates to the open country and the rural districts. This arrangement is a fair and natural distribution of this very important field.
Both institutions have small laboratories for testing highway materials. In view of the enormous importance of this field of work and the large amount of research to be done before roads of permanent character can be constructed, the State will have need of all the laboratory facilities at both the university and the agricultural college. Indeed, the State is doubtless only at the beginning of a great program of highway construction which, if it is to be of permanent character, should be accompanied by extensive research with highway materials, The State might well contemplate the building of a large State highway laboratory at the agricultural college. The university also should be encouraged to continue its research with building materials for urban districts and into general problems with highway materials.
The other engineering courses of study at the two institutions also for the most part follow the division between urban and rural districts. Mining engineering naturally falls to the university, where geology was early developed and where the geological survey of the State has for many years been located. Chemical engineering is not only a type of engineering peculiar to the urban districts, but it is entirely in place at the university, where there has been for years very strong work in chemistry. Industrial engineering and engineering and administrative science are recent developments in the engineering world, which perhaps come a little nearer the earlier ideal of the university in establishing professional engineering than any of the other specialized engineering curricula.
At the agricultural college the additional engineering curricula have largely followed rural needs. Agricultural engineering is a relatively new field of work, but it is fast demonstrating its place not only as service courses in farm machinery but as a four-year curriculum of work. Flour-mill engineering also meets a real need in a State as largely rural as Kansas and where this industry is bound to assume greater proportions as time goes on.
In connection with the other work in engineering the university, in 1913, as has been mentioned, developed a course of study in
architectural engineering. As an outgrowth of that curriculum the university also, in 1919, established a comparable course of study in architecture. The registrations in architecture and architectural engineering combined for the years 1913 to 1922 have been as follows:
Courses in architecture have been given at the agricultural college for a number of years. In 1904 these courses were organized into a four-year curriculum. For several years the work in this field lagged, however, and it was not until a few years ago that stronger members of the faculty were added and the work developed to its present excellence. Reference to the statistical tables shows that the number of students registered in the course of study in architecture has been as follows:
1912-13.. 1913-14. 1914-15.. 1915-16.. 1916-17...
41 | 1917-18..
9 23 41 52
At the present time 31 courses with a total of 89 semester hours of credit are listed in the catalogue for undergraduate instruction. Seven graduate courses with a total of about 28 to 35 credit hours are offered. Besides these courses the college also offers a course in rural architecture in the department of farm engineering; four undergraduate and three graduate courses in landscape gardening in the department of horticulture; and certain courses in design and interior decoration in the division of home economics. In the landscape gardening courses there have been enrolled during the semester just closed 130 students, chiefly those who are majoring in the department of horticulture.
At the present time the department of architecture is housed on the upper floor of the new wing of the engineering building in quarters that are commodious and very well adapted to the needs of the department. The equipment is good and the spirit of both faculty and students appears to be commendable.
The curriculum in architecture at the university grew out of the four-year course of study in architectural engineering which was established at Lawrence in 1913. The response to the curriculum in architectural engineering was so cordial and the demand for more extensive work in architecture so pressing that on January 21, 1920, the board of administration granted the university authority to offer a curriculum in architecture leading to the degree of bachelor of science in architecture.
In the year 1921-22 there were registered 40 students in architectural engineering and 20 in architecture. The catalogue of the university for 1921-22 lists 21 courses in architecture, with a total of 57 semester credit hours. The department of architecture, however, depends in large part on the school of fine arts for its courses in freehand drawing, history of art, painting, and sculpture. The department of civil engineering offers a course in structural design. On account of the presence of these related courses in other departments and schools of the university, the total amount of work listed in the department of architecture at the university is naturally less than at the agricultural college.
The department of architecture has a number of well-lighted rooms assigned to it on the upper floor of the main engineering building. These quarters are fairly well adapted to this type of work but are by no means so pleasant as those at the agricultural college. The grade of work accomplished, however, is of high rank. On account of this fact, and because the department of architecture enjoys the opportunity to cooperate closely with a strong department of art in the school of fine arts, the university in 1920 was elected to membership in the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, an honor which secures certain recognition for its graduates.
The commission has recognized the presence of four-year curricula in urban architecture at both the agricultural college and the university as constituting unnecessary and perhaps wasteful duplication. As has already been stated, Kansas is primarily a rural State, with but a single city containing over 100,000 population; three over 25,000; and 17 over 10,000 population. Under these circumstances it is clear that the demand for professional architects in Kansas is decidedly limited. Doubtless it is for this reason that, of the 25 living graduates in architecture at the university since 1916, 20, including 9 in Kansas City, Mo., are now located out of the State; and that of 54 graduates in architecture at the agricultural college since 1906, 26 are now located out of the State. Moreover, only about 50 per cent of the graduates in architecture at the agricultural college during the last 10 years have followed that profession. More recently nearly all of them have entered that field of work.
In discussing the question of duplication in architecture the commission wishes to state that little light is shed on the problem by the practice of other States which maintain land-grant colleges separated from the universities. In 13 such States-Alabama, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Washington-it has been found that six universities give curricula in architecture or architectural engineering, or both; and that nine land-grant colleges offer curricula in one or both. Six of the land-grant colleges offer curricula in architecture and an equal number in architectural engineering. All six of the universities offer curricula in architecture and two of them, the University of Texas and the University of Kansas, have curricula in architectural engineering. From this it may be concluded that the separated land-grant colleges which give work in these two fields outnumber the separated universities; that curricula in architecture and architectural engineering are equally popular at the land-grant colleges, but that the universities have confined their attention chiefly to architecture.
In both types of higher institutions architecture has usually been closely associated with instruction in engineering, a fact which has prevented many people from appreciating that architecture is essentially a fine art. It is an art of design which of course must be developed to meet certain utilitarian purposes and in keeping with the principles of mechanical construction. The purpose of architecture is therefore to add to a technical knowledge of materials and construction principles that imagination which will result in interesting and beautiful as well as useful and well-constructed buildings. As with all art, it flourishes best in those places where the atmosphere of related arts such as sculpture and painting has been developed most fully.
As between the two institutions in Kansas there is no question but that this atmosphere has been better developed at the university than at the agricultural college. The school of fine arts at the university has had a long and distinguished career. Music has, to be sure, always exceeded painting and drawing in popularity, but at the present time the latter is of especially superior quality, excelling anything along this line hitherto accomplished at the university. There is, furthermore, the Thayer art collection, valued at more than $150,000, and the collection of casts in the Greek museum which have served as a constant inspiration to students in this field. The university will doubtless remain the leader in all the arts so essential to the fullest development of architecture.
Moreover, it should be recalled that the university is naturally called upon primarily to prepare technical and professional graduates for service in cities and towns, while the agricultural college divides its interests between the urban districts and those which are either a part of or closely related to rural life. In accordance with this theory the university has developed courses in sanitary engineering, chemical engineering, municipal engineering, municipal government and business administration, while the agricultural college has turned its