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attention to agricultural engineering, flour-mill engineering, highway engineering, and rural commerce, not to mention, of course, the varied fields of agriculture and veterinary science. This division seems all the more natural when it is realized that the university has considerably easier access to Kansas City and other cities in the State than the agricultural college, which is situated in the midst of the great agricultural section of the State.

This analysis of the situation concerning architecture at the two institutions shows that the solution of the problem is unusually difficult. Priority and present conditions in student enrollment undoubtedly favor the agricultural college. On the other hand, viewed as a problem of what institution is able permanently to offer the best opportunities and the most congenial relationship for the development of architecture, the position of the university is more sound. The commission believes that the State is not justified in supporting two departments of architecture. Therefore, inasmuch as the university is the natural center of education in the fine arts and because of the general division of functions at the two institutions, the commission is convinced that it is naturally more at home at the university.

On the other hand, it should be realized that the agricultural college has a duty equally as important, perhaps, on account of the neglect of art in the rural districts, more important in the development of rural architecture and landscape art. As yet training in this field of art has not been in great demand, but there were during the semester just closed 130 students in the various landscape courses, besides many others registered in the courses in rural architecture and interior decoration and design. The agricultural college, with its department of horticulture and its division of home economics, is the natural place for the development of this field of work. By so doing the agricultural college can perform a very valuable and much needed service to the rural population of the State.

In view of this situation the commission is convinced that the present duplication in urban architecture at the two institutions is unwise and that, on account of the equally large though undeveloped field of rural architecture in Kansas, the agricultural college should shift its architectural work to this field, leaving to the university the field of urban architecture.

MUSIC. The school of fine arts at the university was established in 1891. Ever since that time the school has taken a prominent place in the life of the university, with music as its most popular department. Notwithstanding the fact that the department was for many years very poorly housed in old North College, it has steadily prepared through a series of years a commendable number of graduates with the degree of bachelor of music. At the same time the standards of work have

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been raised until the music work of the University of Kansas now ranks with the best in the country.

The following table shows the number of degrees in fine arts (nearly all of which were in music) which have been granted at the university during the last decade:

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At the agricultural college service courses in music have been offered for a long time to students who were majoring in other fields of work. About five years ago these courses were organized into a three-year course in applied music leading to a certificate in music. At the same time a two-year course in public school music was offered. In 1919 the three-year course was increased to four years and the degree of bachelor of music first offered. The following numbers of degrees have been granted: 1 in 1919–20; 3 in 1920–21; 1 in 1921–22. The registrations in music at the university and the agricultural college, respectively, during the year 1921–22 were as follows: (1) Major students in music, (a) university, 189; (6) agricultural college, 108; (a) students majoring in other departments who are studying music for credit (a) university, 61; agricultural college, 320; (3) students who are majoring in other departments who are studying music without credit, (a) university, 112; (6) agricultural college, 88; (4) special music students, (a) university, 50; (6) agricultural college, 23; (5) students below college grade, (a) university, 26; agricultural college, 77; (6) total, (a) university, 438; (b) agricultural college, 616.

From these figures it is evident that the university is concentrating its attention primarily on the 239 students who are specializing in music, while the department of music at the agricultural college is chiefly occupied with the 408 students of the college who are majoring in other divisions of the college.

This division in the character of music instruction at the two institutions, respectively, is in line with the commission's conception of the primary function of each institution in this field. The university has been and should remain the acknowledged leader in the fine arts, including music, and the commission is convinced that for the training of professional specialists in music the university should always be given first consideration. Any other policy would weaken the standing of a department which has reached its present excellence only after great difficulty and struggle.

Furthermore, the university shares with the agricultural college and the normal schools the obligation to prepare teachers of publicschool music for the schools of the State and also the duty of developing general service courses in music for students who are specializing in other departments of the university.

In suggesting that the State continue its policy of developing professional specialists in music at the university primarily, the commission does not wish to be understood as opposed to the development of music instruction at the agricultural college. On the contrary, music is a universal language, which has a message for people in all types of institutions. Its influence on young people for the development of culture, good taste, and refinement the commission believes to be invaluable and unmeasured. For this reason there should be from the kindergarten through the high school and in every institution of higher learning generous opportunity for students to participate in and enjoy the refining influence of good music. At the agricultural college, therefore, the commission believes that this extension of music throughout the whole student body should be the primary mission of the department of music, and it rejoices that at the college during the year just closed the department has in this manner come in contact with more than 400 students. This obligation, which has been so well fulfilled at the agricultural college, the commission wishes to point out as being a very different matter, though no less noteworthy public service, than the preparation of professional specialists. As at the normal schools, the agricultural college should devote itself primarily to music courses of general service nature and to the curriculum in public-school music.

Nevertheless, while believing that music instruction should by no means be regarded as a major function at the agricultural college, the commission is not willing to recommend that the four-year degree course in music begun there a few years ago should be abolished. Two other separate land-grant colleges—Colorado Agricultural College and the Washington State College—now grant bachelor's degrees for four-year courses in music. Moreover, the department at the agricultural college has so far been relatively inexpensive. The presence in these institutions of a few students who are planning to become professional artists has a stimulating musical effect on the whole student body. It was estimated at the beginning of the fiscal year just closed that the expenses of the department, including salaries and supplies but not including room space, would be $28,000, whereas the fees collected by the institution would total about $20,000. In view of these circumstances it would seem that so long as the agricultural college trains only a small number of students for degrees in music and so long as this work is regarded as merely incidental to the work of training music supervisors and developing widespread appreciation of music among the student body, the general principle already enunciated of developing curricula for professional music

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specialists primarily at the university is in no wise vitiated. The commission commends this division of functions to the careful consideration of the board of administration.

JOURNALISM. The University of Kansas was one of the earliest universities in the country to establish courses in journalism. Although courses were begun in 1903 the present department was not organized until 1911. The number of students registered in the department has been as follows: 321 in 1920-21; 318 in 1921-22. The number of juniors and seniors majoring in the department during the year just closed was 58.

In the current catalogue the university announced 21 courses in journalism, with 50 to 52 hours of credit, and two courses in printing, each with no credit.

The work in journalism at the university has always been regarded as of standard character among the schools and departments of journalism in the important universities of the country. The University of Kansas is therefore one of 12 higher institutions in the country that fulfill the requirements for membership in the Association of American Schools and Departments of Journalism.

The agricultural college was a pioneer in offering courses in printing for credit. These courses were established in 1874 and have been in continuous operation ever since, the longest period in which instruction in the subject has been given in any American college. In 1910 a professor of industrial journalism was employed, and in the following year a four-year curriculum leading to the degree of bachelor of science in industrial journalism was established. Since that time the number of persons majoring in the department has been as follows: 1911-12.

8 1917-18.. 1912-13.

12 1918-19.. 1913-14......

1919-20... 1914-15..

1920-21.... 1915-16.... 1916-17.

1922-23..

128 Including additional students from other divisions who take one or more courses in journalism the department serves about 360 students each year.

During the year just closed the department offered 21 courses in journalism for a total of 43 semester hours credit and 12 courses in printing for a total of 26 semester hours credit.

In order that students in the industrial journalism curriculum may have a fair working knowledge of some particular subject-matter field, they are required to take at least 18 hours in agriculture or some other major curriculum. During the past year students selected:

37 | 1921-22...

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Agriculture, 32; applied and domestic art, 23; food economics and nutrition, 13; applied science, 11; engineering, 5.

The head of the department states that:

The primary purpose of this curriculum (industrial journalism) is to prepare students for work on agricultural or industrial papers, or for specialized agricultural or industrial writing on other publications. In view of the fact that there are more than 500 agricultural journals, 2,300 trade or industrial journals, and a rapidly growing number of newspapers and magazines seeking specialists in these fields, there is an excellent opportunity for students receiving degrees in one of these fields.

In developing courses in industrial journalism the agricultural college has participated in a movement which is growing steadily in nearly all the land-grant colleges. According to statistics gathered for the year 1920-21 by W. A. Summer, professor of agricultural journalism of the University of Wisconsin, the following number of students in industrial or agricultural journalism were being accommodated: University of Wisconsin .....

287 in 8 courses. University of Missouri.

22 in 1 course. University of Illinois ....

9 in 1 course. University of Nebraska

31 in 1 course. Ohio State University.

50 in 1 course. University of West Virginia ......

10 in 2 courses. Figures for several of the land-grant colleges were as follows: Kansas State Agricultural College....

360 in 23 courses. Iowa State College.....

300 in 24 courses. Purdue University.....

25 in 1 course. Oregon State Agricultural Colleg.e......

70 in 8 courses. Oklahoma Agricultural College......

70 in 5 courses. Michigan Agricultural College.....

60 in 3 courses. Colorado Agricultural College....

20 in 1 course. Washington State College.........

79 in 9 courses. Pennsylvania State College...

31 in 2 courses. Massachusetts Agricultural College..

24 in 2 courses. Of the 49 land-grant colleges in the country, only 9 have no facilities at all for instruction in journalism; 24 of the 49 have one or more courses in agricultural journalism. The Kansas State Agricultural College and the Iowa State College, however, are the only institutions which have four-year curricula in industrial journalism leading to the bachelor's degree, although the work along these lines has been considerably developed at the Washington State College and the Oregon Agricultural College. With the exception of Kansas and Iowa, courses in agricultural journalism are offered only as service courses in all the land-grant colleges.

The commission is of the opinion that the conception of the field for industrial journalism at the agricultural college is sound. The agricultural and trade journals very much need the uplifting in

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