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fluence of young men and young women who have been trained adequately for these special fields. The demand for trained people in these lines of work has in recent years been large and increasing, and the commission feels that the college is to be congratulated on being one of the two or three leading institutions in the country to discern and map out this work.
The commission is convinced, however, that the State would be unwise to duplicate curricula in this field of work. The university should not parallel the work in industrial journalism, nor should the agricultural college train young people for general newspaper work. The field of journalism at the agricultural college grows out of its major work in agriculture, home economics, and engineering, and should be confined chiefly to training students for doing work on agricultural, trade, and technical journals and to special feature writing in these fields for the magazines and newspapers. The university, on the other hand, should be responsible for all courses leading to general newspaper work. If the two institutions will keep this division of functions clearly in mind each will continue to fill a very important function which in no wise duplicates the field of the other.
In connection with the large number of sources in printing, the commission is of the opinion that the agricultural college is unwise to give so many courses for college credit for work that is essentially trade or vocational in character.
EDUCATION. For many years at the university the department of education was included in the college of liberal arts and sciences. In 1909 it was organized as a separate school. Since that time there have been in the school the following enrollments, most of which have been duplicated in the college of liberal arts and sciences: 1913....
...391 The school of education attempts to perform five main functions in undergraduate work: (1) Train school superintendents and principals; (2) train high-school teachers; (3) prepare special teachers of music and drawing in a two-year curriculum to meet the certificate requirements of the State board of education; (4) prepare elementary school teachers in a two-year curriculum to meet the three-year certificate requirements of the State board of education; (5) prepare vocational teachers under the Smith-Hughes Acts in home economics. In addition to undergraduate work of this character a
considerable amount of graduate work is given by members of the education staff.
The commission is aware of the great service which the university has rendered to the State in the training of teachers for the secondary schools, and it is convinced that the university atmosphere and the university curriculum, with its combination of subject matter and professional courses, are conducive to the most thorough and most satisfactory preparation for teaching in the high schools. For this reason it seems evident that the university should continue to exercise that leadership in the preparation of high-school teachers, particularly for the larger and well-organized secondary schools, which may naturally be expected where there are the most complete opportunities for the development of professional and subject matter courses preparatory to high-school teaching.
The commission is of the opinion that the university will be unable to fulfill entirely its obligation for the training of high-school teachers with the present inadequate facilities for practice teaching. The regulations of the State board of education do not require practice teaching of prospective teachers in the high schools. This condition taken in conjunction with the fact that the university possesses only a small frame building for a training school accounts for the fairly large proportion of prospective teachers who graduate from the university without having had any practice teaching. It is impossible to estimate this number exactly, but it runs from one-third to one-half the total number of graduates who go into teaching. The commission is convinced that before the school of education can do its work in the most effective and satisfactory manner there should be erected a training school building sufficiently large to care for at least 200 students. The commission suggests that steps be taken to do this at the earliest possible time.
The function of the university in the preparation of school principals and superintendents is even more distinctive than that of preparing high-school teachers, which after all the university shares with the normal schools and other higher institutions in the State. Since the training of school administrators is becoming more and more of graduate character, the university, which is practically the only institution in the State to which educators may look for advanced and graduate work in psychology and education, naturally has a very important obligation to fulfill and one which will be of increasing importance as time goes on. The commission therefore commends the formation of the Bureau of School Service at the university as a definite means of rendering service to educational administrators throughout the State. Everything should be done to enable the school of education to fulfill this function acceptably.
The functions of the agricultural college in the training of teachers are based primarily on the three original functions of the college, namely, agriculture, home economics, and engineering. It seems evident, therefore, that, since agriculture is taught practically only at the agricultural college, and home economics is taught there much more extensively than at any other institution in the State, the agricultural college should be the leader in the preparation of teachers for these two specialized fields of high-school teaching, just as the university is in all the other lines of preparation for teaching in the secondary schools. In addition, the agricultural college is prepared to train high-school teachers of science, public-school teachers of music in the two years' curriculum established by the State board of education, and vocational teachers of agriculture, home economics, and trades and industries.
At present education is a department in the division of general science. It is chiefly engaged in teaching the courses needed by prospective teachers to fulfill the 18 semester hours in education required by the State board of education for a certificate. Students do some practice teaching in the local Manhattan high school and also in the vocational school of agriculture. Additional practice teaching facilities would greatly improve the quality of teacher preparation at the agricultural college. In order better to fulfill its functions it seems likely that the department could be more effective if it were expanded into a division on a par with the other divisions in the college, such as agriculture, home economics, and engineering.
HOME ECONOMICS. As at all other land-grant colleges, with the exception of the Massachusetts Agricultural College and certain of the southern institutions, the Kansas State Agricultural College has developed home economics as one of its chief major lines of work. Indeed, this institution was one of the first land-grant colleges in the country to offer instruction in this subject. A full four-year professional curriculum was first organized in 1897, and three years later the degree of bachelor of science for work in this field was announced. It will be seen, therefore, that home economics as a major line of work at the agricultural college is 25 years old. During the period from 1912-13 to 1921-22 the total registration of students majoring in this division has decreased from 749 to 552. There are also a number of young women, particularly in recent years, registered in the general science courses who take one or more courses in home economics.
There is a single four-year curriculum leading to the bachelor's degree. The courses in this curriculum during the first two years are prescribed. In the junior year 9 semester hours are elective; in the senior 17 semester hours. Students are given the opportunity to select these additional hours from groups of electives containing specialized courses, or they may take a part of these electives in these groups and the remaining ones in advanced courses of related subject matter. The groups of courses are as follows:
(1) Advertising, buying, and salesmanship. (2) Certificate requirements for vocational home economics teaching. (3) Clothing and textile work. (4) Designing and decorating. (5) Food and nutrition. (6) Home making (two groups). (7) Institutional management. (8) Lecturing and demonstration. (9) Sanitary science; food and market inspection. (10) Social-service work. (11) State requirements for general teaching. In addition to the four-year curriculum, there is also a five-year curriculum combining home economics and nursing leading to the bachelor of science degree and a diploma in nursing. During the first two years of this course of study the student spends her time at the college. The third and fourth years are spent at the nursing school of a local hospital. During the fifth year students have certain required and elective courses at the college which complete the work of the curriculum.
The division also devotes some time to giving courses of vocational character to students in the secondary school of agriculture, the one-year curriculum in lunch-room management, and the housekeepers' course of 15 weeks.
On the whole the equipment for courses in home economics at the agricultural college is good. The commission, however, was impressed with the fact that for the fullest development of this work additional facilities and equipment are very desirable. It is scarcely possible to give a high grade of graduate work under present conditions.
Home economics was first introduced as a department in the college of liberal arts and sciences at the University of Kansas in 1910. In accordance with the rules of the college of liberal arts and sciences students who wish to major in home economics must offer a minimum of 20 semester hours and a maximum of not more than 40. During the year 1921-22, 70 juniors and seniors are registered for major work in this field. Of this number, 35 expected to go into teaching, 10 into other professional work, and 25 took the course of study for general purposes. Besides the students who are majoring in this department, there were 292 other students in the university who took one or more courses in home economics. The total number of individuals enrolled during the year was 362, or nearly one-third of the young women at the university.
According to the plans of the department three types of major curricula will be offered to students during the forthcoming year: (1) General curriculum without chemistry; (2) general professional and teacher-training curriculum with chemistry; and (3) dietetics curriculum.
In establishing and developing work in home economics the University of Kansas has pursued a practice which has become almost universal in the important separated State universities. The University of Michigan offers no home economics of any kind, and the University of Oregon gives only service courses; but other separated State universities such as Iowa, Washington, Texas, Montana, Colorado, Indiana, North Dakota, and South Dakota include a department of home economics in the division of arts and sciences, with the opportunity to pursue a major in that field. Several of them confer the degree of bachelor of science in home economics.
The curricula in home economics at the separated State universities are usually designed to meet the needs of two classes of students; (1) Those who expect to teach in the high schools; and (2) those desiring general knowledge of the subject as a part of their liberal education and for home-making purposes.
In both of these fields the separated State universities seem to be on undebatable ground. The universities are the leaders in preparing teachers for the secondary schools, and it would be unwise to throw many restrictions about them in the preparation of high-school teachers. Certainly in Kansas whatever reasons exist for offering home economics as a major course of study in the normal schools are of even more weight at the university.
Furthermore, students of higher education are now nearly a unit in agreeing that wherever young women are in college there should be ample opportunities for them to secure courses in home economics for general home-making purposes. For this reason it is now becoming decidedly unusual to find a college of any consequence, whether publicly or privately controlled, that does not offer courses in home economics whenever the young women students have reached any considerable number. There are at the University of Kansas about 1,200 young women who will be future home makers in Kansas. There can be no doubt that these young women should have ample opportunity to prepare themselves for home duties as well as cultural and citizenship obligations.
On the other hand, the State would be extremely unwise to permit exact duplication of all the professional studies in home economics at the university. The agricultural college, by reason of the character of the institution and by reason of its priority, is entitled to the same leadership in this field that should be accorded to the university in certain other fields of work. It would seem to the commission, for example, that the agricultural college should be given a clear field