« ForrigeFortsett »
for the exclusive development of all other specialties in home economics as well as for graduate work in this field. The only exception to this statement is such nutrition and dietetics research that naturally forms a part of the work of the newly established child research bureau at the university. The location of this bureau at the univeristy was a perfectly natural action in view of the close contact such a bureau needs to maintain with the medical school of the university.
In view of this situation the commission is convinced that the major curricula in home economics at the university should be confined to general cultural purposes and to the training of teachers of secondary schools, together with such research in nutrition and dietetics as naturally is a part of the bureau of child research.
Before dismissing this subject, however, the commission feels that it should record its disapproval of the attempt at the university to offer a major in home economics without chemistry as a prerequisite. Students who are not willing to take courses in general chemistry, qualitative analysis, organic chemistry, and the chemistry of foods as prerequisites to the courses in domestic science should not be allowed to major in this field, either in the general or the teachertraining curriculum. The interests of these students are practically the same as those of that large group of young women who, before their graduation, elect a small number of courses in home economics. The fact that young women who have had no courses in chemistry are permitted to pursue such courses as food and nutrition and economic uses of foods along with those who have had adequate preliminary training in chemistry necessarily very seriously lowers the grade of class work that can be accomplished. The commission understands the very great value of elementary courses in home economics for the general student who has not had preliminary training in chemistry, but great care should be taken to separate the two types of students in order that each may perform the grade of work which may reasonably be expected of it.
In order to provide adequately for the training of teachers in home economics at the university, there should be added to the department courses in millinery, institutional management, interior decoration, and house planning. Also the laboratory facilities are as yet very inadequate for any purpose except the training of the general student. If the university wishes to offer a major in this field for the general students in arts and science or for the training of teachers, improved facilities are needed at once.
LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES. Reference has already been made to the fact that, at the time the university and the agricultural college were founded, instruction in
the usual university curricula, including liberal arts and sciences, was much more definitely organized than instruction in agriculture, home economics, or mechanic arts. With tremendous agricultural areas still unoccupied by settlers, making scientific agriculture appear unnecessary, with organized instruction in home economics wholly undeveloped, and with little immediate need either of artisans or engineers, there were very few people either in the general population or even in the land-grant colleges themselves who had a definite conception of the field of service of the land-grant college as against the well-known university curricula. Consequently, there was in the earlier years of the separate land-grant college an inevitable tendency to reproduce the usual arts and science curriculum. At the Kansas State Agricultural College, as at all similar institutions, there were repeated complaints that the institution was not using its funds for the purposes intended in the Morrill Acts and in the laws of the State and regulations of the board of regents. For example, in 1873 the board of regents announced that it was the object of the institutionto impart a liberal and practical education to those who desire to qualify themselves for the actual practice of agriculture, the mechanic trades, and industrial arts. Prominence shall be given to agriculture and these arts in the proportion that they are severally followed in the State of Kansas. Prominence shall be given to the several branches of learning which relate to agriculture and the mechanic arts, according to the directness and value of their relation.
Since those early days the major curricula of the land-grant colleges, as mentioned in the Morrill Acts, have become practically as well organized as other fields of higher education. "Mechanic arts," has been interpreted by the land-grant institutions to be practically the same as engineering at the universities. Through research at the agricultural experiment stations the area of agricultural knowledge has been extended and scientifically organized. Home economics instruction has by no means reached the stage of development attained by engineering and agriculture, but important progress has been made in outlining the technique of home economics instruction and the applications to which it may be put.
The remarkable development of these technical curricula in recent years has been based very largely on the progress which has been made in the basic sciences underlying these fields of instruction. Engineering, agriculture, and home economics are the diverse applications of mathematics, chemistry, physics, physiology, biochemistry, botany, zoology, and bacteriology to the particular problems raised in each of these major divisions of instruction. For this reason technical educators representing these several divisions are now a unit in holding that the quality and success of instruction in agriculture, engineering, and home economics depends on sound training in the basic sciences.
Moreover, as the social significance of engineering, home economics, and agriculture came to the front, educational administrators realized that graduates in these fields should somehow receive not only the necessary technical instruction but at the same time such instruction in the application of economic science as will enable them to become leaders and managers in their respective professions.
Finally, in part because our system of secondary education leaves much in the way of cultural education for the higher institutions to supplement and in part because of the universal yearning for things that lift people out of the deadly routine, whether in the office, on the farm, or in the factory, modern educators insist that students in engineering, home economics, and agricultural curricula, which, contrary to the curriculum in medicine and for the most part to that in law, are based merely on high-school graduation, should receive a liberal amount of instruction in arts and sciences. The combination of applied science with basic sciences and with cultural and citizenship subjects is therefore intended not only to prepare young men and women to succeed in some definite technical work but also to lead a successful and well-rounded life.
It becomes apparent therefore that no separate land-grant college can afford to deny to its students the contacts with arts and science subjects which students of agriculture, home economics, and engineering receive at universities such as Missouri, Illinois, and Wisconsin, which include the land-grant colleges.
Moreover, it should be realized that the development of the three original functions of the land-grant colleges depends in the future as in the past on research in the basic sciences underlying agriculture, home economics, and engineering. A State is wise, therefore, if it encourages research and graduate work at a separate land-grant college not only in the applications of the three major lines of work but in the basic sciences on which they depend. For purposes of economy in State expenditures for higher education and in order to be of the greatest use to agriculture, home economics, and engineering, the State agricultural college should, however, be expected to devote its research and graduate work primarily to those fields of the basic sciences that are most closely related to the three original functions of the college. Any other policy would naturally lead to confusion with the advanced and graduate work in the same subjects which can be most advantageously conducted at the university.
It is unnecessary to develop extensively the function of the university in the liberal arts and sciences. The work in this field is the very heart and center of the university and institutions of comparable character. From an educational point of view there should be at the university no limitation in the development of advanced and graduate work save perhaps the portions of the basic sciences that are closely related to the three major functions of the agricultural
college. Even here, since engineering at the university is recognized on a basis of equality with the agricultural college and since research in certain problems in nutrition can best be carried on in connection with the medical school, it is clear that the university shares with the agricultural college large and important obligations for the development of research in these lines of work and the sciences basic to them. An example of such a division in research function has already been referred to in the discussion concerning research in highway engineering.
The obligation of the university, therefore, in the development of the sciences is inclusive, with certain exceptions, rather than specific as at the agricultural college. In the realm of the pure sciences there are innumerable fields of research and investigation, in many instances remotely connected with any known application, which the university and other institutions of similar character are under obligations to promote with vigor and proper encouragement.
In the realm of the liberal arts, where advanced courses and research work are not necessary in the curricula for technical and scientific students at the agricultural college, the commission holds that it would be unwise to permit duplication in advanced courses and research work. For this reason it would seem that the present practice of not granting the bachelor of arts or the master of arts degree at the agricultural college should be adhered to.
The commission takes this view because it is convinced that with teachers who are inspired with true professional spirit and deep devotion to the mission of teaching little or no harm in the quality of instruction in liberal arts at the agricultural college can possibly result. Moreover, it should be recalled that at higher institutions there is a deep and constant obligation to wise economy as well as to extended educational programs. The State has taken the step of separating the university and the land-grant college, and in the interest of State economy it must accept the results, among which is the location of certain types of graduate work at one institution and certain types at the other. In this manner advanced and research work, which is too expensive to be duplicated freely, will be adequately recognized at either the university or the agricultural college.
In this discussion of the function of the university and the agricultural college, respectively, with respect to liberal arts and sciences, the commission has endeavored to take a generous attitude toward the agricultural college. It is, however, not the commission's intention to recognize anything like equal obligations in this field at the two institutions. The leadership of the university in the general field should be unquestioned, and in the efforts which the State should make for thorough and extended instruction and research in liberal arts and sciences the university should receive the same primary consideration that the agricultural college enjoys, for example, in the field of home economics.
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES AND THE PREPARATION OF
TEACHERS IN KANSAS.
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES IN KANSAS.
There is a considerable variety of teachers' certificates issued in Kansas. Of primary importance in the rural schools are the first, second, and third grade certificates issued by the county boards of examiners. The law governing the issuing of these certificates requires candidates for the third-grade certificates to pass examinations in the usual 11 elementary school subjects and in elementary general science, English classics, and the principles and methods of teaching. A third-grade certificate is issued for one year, but not more than two third-grade certificates may be obtained.
Candidates for the second-grade certificate are required to pass examinations in the elements of music, besides the examinations required for the third-grade certificates, and to show that they have completed a one-year course in an approved high school or passed examinations in at least three of the subjects required during the first year of high school. The certificate is good for two years. Additional second-grade certificates without limit may be secured through examinations.
First-grade county certificates are issued to persons who have taught not less than 14 months, who pass examinations in English history and elementary physics, in addition to the subjects required for the second-grade certificate, and who in addition show that they have completed a two-year course of study in an approved high school or passed examinations in seven units required in those two years. First-grade certificates are good for three years and are renewable, provided the holders attend county normal institutes and perform professional work prescribed by the county superintendent.
The second important class of certificates is issued by the State board of education, and hence are called State certificates. The law provides that three-year elementary-school certificates may be issued to persons who hold first-grade county certificates or who have certificates issued by examining boards in cities of the first and second class, provided these persons show that they have completed a four-year course of study in an approved high school and in addition have completed a two-year course of study in a normal school,