of the institution which has been quoted. In order to give the work needed to develop high-school teachers of physics, chemistry, home economics, and manual training it was necessary to establish laboratories and shops of considerable size which might also be used for the training of vocational students at any time there was sufficient room and faculty to do so. In 1910 there seemed to be a local demand in Pittsburg for classes in the elements of mining. Accordingly, evening classes in this subject were held in the classrooms and shops at the normal schools. The experiment met with a considerable response, and in 1912 classes in applied electricity were added. Extension classes in the same subjects were organized in the numerous small mining and industrial towns which surround Pittsburg. In a very short time, also, day courses were given to students who wished to prepare themselves for trade and vocational work. All or practically all of these students were young men who had not gone further in their general education than the elementary school. After finishing these trade courses, which required about one year, it was found that some students wished to continue their work. There were also a small number of high-school graduates who desired a certain amount of advanced work along industrial lines. Accordingly, about eight years ago there were organized several two-year curricula in “industrial engineering” in which these two types of students are accommodated. The curricula in industrial engineering were not published until 1918, but since that time they have been extensively advertised. Finally, in 1919, as will be mentioned at greater length elsewhere, the normal school, with the consent of the board of administration, reached an agreement with the engineering school at the University of Kansas for the latter to accept two years of engineering work from the Pittsburg Normal, provided it was comparable in character to that required in the first two years at the university.

The growth in technical and trade students at the State Manual Training Normal School was doubtless increased by the World War. In the first place, as is well known, the number of students studying to be teachers dropped off at practically all the teacher-training institutions in the country, the State Manual Training Normal School included. Accordingly, it was perfectly natural for the normal school during the period of great need for all kinds of shop workers and repair men to lend its shop and laboratory facilities to this character of work. Since the war the State Manual Training Normal School, as other teacher-training schools, has again increased the registration of prospective teachers, but it also continues to give vocational courses and industrial engineering work to a large number of Federal trainees under the supervision of the Veterans' Bureau and to such other vocational students as apply for this work.

In order that the extent of the trade and industrial engineering courses may be better appreciated it seems desirable to describe this work at some greater length. It is conducted mainly by two departments, namely (1) industrial arts and (2) engineering and technical courses.

In the industrial arts department trade courses covering from one to two years, according to the previous experience of students, were announced last year as follows: (1) Machinist and tool making; (2) pattern making; (3) automobile work; (4) carpentry; and (5) telegraphy. For next year the department has dropped carpentry and telegraphy but has increased its offerings to include four additional trades: (1) Linotype operating; (2) printing; (3) machine and architectural drafting; and (4) furniture upholstering and repairing. These courses are also much more extensively outlined than formerly. In the catalogue for 1921-22 they occupy about 7 pages, in the catalogue for 1922–23, about 18 pages. Obviously, the trade courses in this field are regarded as of increasing importance.

In the engineering and technical courses division there is also much evidence of expansion in the trade courses announced. In 1921–22 the following one-year vocational courses were listed: (1) Electricians' course; (2) miners' course; (3) stationary engineering. To this number has been added for next year: (1) A one-year course in storage battery construction and repair; and two-year courses in (2) auto electricity; (3) shop electricians' course; (4) mine electricians' course; (5) motor maintenance; (6) house wiring; and (7) road building and general construction course.

Perhaps it should be said that the additional trade courses here mentioned are practically all variations of the first three trade courses. With the increase in the number of trade students who later desire to enroll in the two-year industrial engineering curricula, it has become the practice of the departments to retain in the general trade courses all those students who show promise of being able to carry successfully the later industrial engineering curricula. Those who do not show such promise or who expect to remain but a year or two are placed in the specialized trade courses.

In addition to the trade courses mentioned above, the department of engineering and technical courses is responsible for the two-year curricula in industrial engineering. During the year just past there were curricula in (1) industrial civil engineering; (2) industrial

electrical engineering; (3) industrial mechanical engineering; (4) · industrial mining engineering. To these courses of study there has

been added for next year a curriculum in industrial chemical engineering

Other evidence to the effect that work in this field is being considerably expanded is seen from the fact that the number of courses offered in this division has been increased as follows: Chemistry, 7 to 16; geology, 2 to 4; mining, 5 to 17; physics, 19 to 24; drafting, 2 to 9; mathematics and applied mathematics, 30 to 34. A few, but by no means all, of these courses have hitherto been listed in the offerings of the college of arts and sciences.

The purposes of these industrial engineering courses of study are well set forth by J. A. Yates, director of electrical and mining engineering and professor of chemical and physical sciences, as follows:

We have in industrial regions many capable young men who for various reasons have not obtained a complete high-school education. Our courses furnish the opportunity to these men to obtain an educational preparation for many of the positions of leadership in our varied industrial life. The subjects to be studied in the course, and the length of time required to complete it, appeal to the ambitious man who has found from his previous experience the need of such information which is furnished in these courses. To finish the high-school subjects and the usual four-year engineering course is beyond his reach, both in point of time and course content; therefore, he is forced to attempt to get any educational help available.

Regular four-year high-school graduates who complete any of these courses and during the two years they are in school become impressed with the field of service offered by teaching, may continue their studies, and in due time meet all requirements for our degree in education. These men, after acquiring the proper trade contact, will have excellent preparation for Smith-Hughes teachers in the line of work indicated by their chosen course.

It is our deliberate conclusion after many years of study and consultation with men employed in positions of directing work in the lines covered by our courses that we meet an educational need, fill a gap as it were, for men employed in the different lines of our industrial activities, not giving complete preparation for the highest type of engineering work but educational preparation far above that of the tradesman or that which may be obtained through extension or correspondence work.

These courses furnish an additional stimulus for many students, and particularly for those students of industrial arts, trades, and vocational departments of which we have large numbers.

These industrial engineering courses offer splendid opportunities for students preparing for teaching mathematics and physical sciences to equip themselves so as to make the most practical and vital application of what they are to teach in these important fields of our public schools. Indeed, many who are not specializing in these fields appreciate an opportunity to take a few courses to make more practical and broaden their preparation for the things which they are to teach. We have a number of students also who are looking forward to sometime taking up educational directorship in industries, and the industrial engineering courses will give a splendid preparation for such objectives.

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The industrial and scientific courses at this institution have grown into two-year courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, and mining engineering. The completion of any of these courses leads to a diploma. Their purpose is to prepare young men for positions as foremen and superintendents of our industrial plants doing the work indicated by the title of the course. Many of the larger industrial companies have approved these courses and are ready to give employment to young men who have successfully completed any one of them. A ļarge number of young men are taking advantage of the opportunity offered by these courses.

These two-year industrial engineering courses are built upon the very minimum requirements in mathematics and theoretical science, thereby enabling the student

to become familiar with engineering subjects from the practical side rather than the theoretical. The young man who completes one of these courses is expected to be able to do the work called for in the course. He is also expected to be able to direct the work of others and, in addition, to be able to decide the cheapest and best method of doing a definite piece of work. It is not the thought of these two-year engineering courses that they substitute for the four-year courses in engineering. The two-year industrial engineering courses are not the first two years of a four-year course, but are complete courses designed to fill the gap in educational training between a four or five year course in the old-established schools of engineering and little or no educational training above the equivalent of that of a high school.

As has already been alluded to, the students who register for the two-year curricula in industrial engineering are of two classes -- (1) graduates of the one-year trade courses preparatory to the respective industrial engineering curricula, and (2) high-school graduates. The registration in industrial engineering as well as in trade-vocational courses is given in the following table:

Registration of engineering and trade students at the State Manual Training Normal

School, 1920–1922.

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From this table it will be seen that, of the 111 industrial engineering students registered at Pittsburg in 1921–22, only 16 are graduates of high schools. Notwithstanding this fact, these curricula and all students in them are regarded as of standard college grade. The two types of students naturally differ in their preparation, and adjustments in the required courses are made to meet this condition. For example, the high-school graduate, being better prepared in English than the vocational graduate, is not required to take the course in vocational English. On the other hand, he will perhaps be behind in certain shop work which he is asked to make up. Also the high-school graduate is not required to take the course in practical algebra but instead takes a course in industrial mathematics, which the trade graduate has had in his one-year trade course. In the second semester both types of students take plane trigonometry. Indeed, beginning with the second semester of the first year, all students registered for example in industrial electrical engineering take exactly the same work. •In order that the entire curriculum pursued by a trade graduate who later finishes the course of study in industrial engineering may be made clear the commission has selected the curriculum in industrial electrical engineering as an example of the practice followed at the Pittsburg Normal School.

Vocational course for electricians.

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During the year just closed the industrial depression has had a marked effect on the vocational work done at Pittsburg. Nearly all of the night classes, for example, have been discontinued. On the other hand, the institution is now caring for nearly twice as many Federal trainees in trade and industrial engineering curricula as it did during the previous year. The total number of these Federal trainees accommodated during the year was 368. The general importance of the trade and industrial engineering work in the life of the institutions is indicated to a certain extent by the following quotation taken from the current catalogue: “Between 600 and 700 men are now in attendance at the institution, and about half this number are availing themselves of the opportunity of the above industrial, engineering, and technical courses.”

The last step taken by the division of engineering and technical courses in the expansion of its technical curricula was to reach an agreement in 1919, the board of administration consenting with the University of Kansas whereby the latter agreed to recognize the right of the normal school to conduct classes in elementary tech

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