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mysticism, and of the plainest understanding.
"In all other legends the first man appears dependent upon nature; in the Bible alone he is represented as nature's lord. Adam gives names to all creatures all creatures obey him till, by sin, he falls under the dominion of the powers of nature.
"The Mosaic legend connects the first hostile separation of mankind immediately with the first pair. The
eldest born of men murders his brother, and wanders with the mark of Cain upon his brow into distant regions. Is there not in this mythos, however deeply hidden, a trace of the first mysterious division into the diffe. rent races of mankind? It is of little importance to enquire whether the legend of Noah be a totally new one, or only altered from that of Adam. To us it is of no manner of consequence whether the world began to be peopled by one or by the other. soon as history becomes a little clear, we find mankind already divided into five great families, which answer to the five great portions of the world, and having already adapted themselves to the climates; the white race in Europe and Western Asia, the yellow in Eastern Asia, the red in America, the black in Africa, and the brown in Southern Asia and Australia. The later dispersions at the Tower of Babel, at the destruction of Troy, and at the oppression of Dacia, whatever their effects may have been, belong only to the white Caucasian races, and to a recent period. But all this gives no explanation of the causes of the differences between the races; and as long as we remain ignorant of them, all those tales and legends can only be regarded as memorials of other separations with in the white race itself. Here, then, we must summon the natural sciences to our aid; for all legends must be tried by geography and physiology."
The fourth, or Genealogical Problem, accordingly commences with an enquiry into the effects of climate in altering the colour;-then, as to whether it is probable that the Fall had any influence in making mankind black; and after suggesting an original solution of the difficulty, by supposing it not impossible that this diversity of colour was originally implanted in Adam's organization, and took some time to develop itself-as
many new faculties seem to make their appearance from time to time, (such, for instance, as animal magnetism,) while others disappear,-he honestly confesses, that the difference of the races continues as great an enigma as the origin of the human race itself. But our worthy friend likes it all the better on account of its being an enigma; being a gentleman only inferior to Billy Black in finding out a puzzle. And the following short sentence soon gave us note of preparation for another of his flights. "Here, then, we must again have recourse to astronomy"-To astronomy, to discover why there are niggers in Africa?-Shiver me! what will the fellow do next?
"Let us remember the great astronomical opposition of an earth-power north and south, to a sun-power east and west, and we shall find the same opposition recurring in the development of mankind on the earth. Strictly speaking, there are only two positively opposed races of men, the black and the white. But the whites are evidently children of the north, under the influence of the great fixedstar heaven; under the law of a higher world regulation, endowed with spirit and activity, and, so far from submitting to the mere power of nature, that they have, through the whole course of history, aimed at making themselves independent of it. The blacks, on the other hand, are children of the south, under the influence of the sun, eternally subjected to the animal desires, without self-consciousness—without historical recollections -without an object of endeavour, and living but for the morrow.
"The third great family is the yellow-Mongol-Chinese.
"If the blacks represent the sun, and the whites the great fixed-star heaven, the Mongols would seem to be the earthly representatives of the moon. There is something about them grey, pallid, and faded, and isolation is their peculiar characteristic. In the midst of the world, they make up a little world of their own, perfectly detached and separate. But this little world, although perfect in itself, is only a shadow of the rest-a lifeless, cold imitation. In physical conformation, the Mongols are even less different from the whites than are the blacks. And on the difference be
tween these three races, the legend of the three sons of Noah may be founded. The Negroes, indeed, have a legend of the three brothers, and they expressly refer to them the white, the yellow, and the black races of mankind. The two other principal families may have arisen from admixtures of the other three. The brown Malays, from a junction between the blacks with the Indians and Chinese. The red Americans appear also to be a kind of mulattoes, a combination of the Mongol and Malayan races, and probably also of the Gauls, Finns, and Wendæ, who are undoubtedly of Indian origin, and may have peopled the north of Europe and Asia in the earliest times, and have passed over, via Greenland, to America.
"The coloured races have certain points in common, notwithstanding the differences that are to be found among them. I allude not only to the darkness of their colour, but to a corresponding darkness and contractedness of the understanding. stereotype character of earthly nature, under the annually recurring influence of the sun, is shown in their whole life and bearing. They either have no history at all, and have made no progress towards a higher civilisation for thousands of years-or they remain on a very low step of civilisation, and have hindered the farther improvement of their descendants. The first holds good of the Negroes-and the last of the Mongols.
"Europe, from its peninsular shape, is particularly adapted for maritime pursuits, and this led her to make conquests in other quarters of the world. The Dutch-Roman races (the Portuguese, Spaniards, Hollanders, French and English) colonized all America, and made themselves masters of the coasts of Africa and all the Australian islands. With this commenced a new intermixture of the white and coloured
spect; they attain the pure complexion, noble sentiments, and lofty spirit of the whites; and, at the same time, have the plastic forms and sound health of the dark races. May not the splendid qualities of the Greeks and Romans have arisen from a similar combination of the Thracian and Semitic families?
"It may be asked whether, at some future time, the rest of the world may not be flooded with Europeans from the East Indies, from the Cape, and from Botany Bay, and by this means (though it may take hundreds of years in the performance) a universal commixture take place, as it has in America? Or whether there may not occur a reaction of the original coloured inhabitants against the colonists-and in that event, whether those coloured races would remain, as hitherto, in their lethargic stupidity, or, of their own accord, would embrace Christianity and European civilisation? It would be a strange phenomenon in the history of the world if the rigid crust of those ancient nations were to soften all at once, and after remaining immovable for six thousand years, they were instantaneously (as by the touch of magic wand) to be endowed with the soul of the white races. do not believe it. I believe rather that the final complete triumph of Christianity and of civilisation will be the consequence of an entire fusion of the whites and blacks. Australia must speedily have the same fate as America has had. There the aborigines are thinly scattered, and cannot resist the aggressions of the tra ding colonists, who will go on increasing rapidly as the Indian trade acquires additional expansion through the prosperity of the American States
the emancipation of the East Indies-and the extending colonization of the Cape. Africa will soon follow. The time is not far distant when Northern Africa will be subject to Europeans. And Egypt also must in future play a distinguished part, either by the restoration of an Arab kingdom, or by European conquest; and colonization will go forward slowly, but surely, from the Cape. Negro tribes in the interior seem incapable of offering any effectual opposition, and will sooner or later be reduced to the same situation as the North American Indians.
"As to Asia, the same processes secure a similar result. In the East Indies the elements of a mighty kingdom are collecting, and European cultivation widely diffusing itself. The Indians are so ready to receive it, and so thankful for the instructions of the English, that I do not dream of their ever being expelled the country.
"New sects will arise in Arabia, which will approximate the old faith to Christianity. China and Japan will offer more resistance, inasmuch as in material cultivation they are already so near the Europeans; and it would be impossible to modify such immense masses of people by intermixture, like the blacks, or root them out, like the North American Indians. "Whatever, therefore, may be the result, whether at any future time the whites, by intermixtures, may swallow up all the other shades, it is, at all events, certain that population will go on increasing in a greater ratio than ever. Nothing has yet set bounds to its progress. Great nations have disappeared, the whole American race is on the point of expiring, and yet the numbers are replaced tenfold. Mortality in China is prodigious. Millions are swept off by a war or a pestilence, and yet that is the territory in the whole earth where population is most dense. It is, therefore, no idle question what will happen in some thousand years, when every corner of the earth is inhabited. this question lies matter for the most awful page in the world's history. The means of supplying such prodigious numbers are above our present faculties to imagine—or is that the time for the angel of destruction foretold to us in the Revelations ?"
We find we have left ourselves little
room to give any account of the fifth or Historical Problem, and our readers may perhaps be of opinion we have devoted quite as much space to the others as they deserve. But we explained, when we began, our reason for doing so; and we feel persuaded they will not now dissent from our proposition, that the present school of German philosophers has a much greater tendency to the absurd and grotesque, than to the useful and the true.
Following in the steps of Herder and Schelling, Menzel discourses very learnedly on a certain "parallelism of nature," taking for his text this somewhat astounding proposition, which is the received doctrine of the modern philosophers, "That history forms one great self-connected life in time, as nature does in space." He agrees also with Schelling, that all the appearances we are acquainted with in nature compose oppositions or antitheses; and that the antithesis is, therefore, the only form in which nature reveals herself to mankind."
We shall not follow him in his exemplifications of this theory, although we confess that his Historical Problem shows as much information as ingenuity. We have now done all we intended, and, after wading through a hundred and ninety-five pages of such wonderful speculations, (which, we confess, have astonished us the more, as proceeding from the author of the Deutsche Literatur,) we cannot part without promising, on some future occasion, to restore him to our own good opinion, and that of our readers, by giving a view of him in some of his better works-his stirring history of his own land, or his noble assaults on literary quackery and imposture.