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wert the occasion of our first differ- wailed and drooped, and even the deence with the dwarfs. Their King, so lights of our land could do nothing to old, so wise, looked on thee ever with console us, till we found thee sleeping more joy and sadness, and at last he in a grotto of diamond and emerald, told us that he would fain have thee which recalled to us the treasures of for his queen, to abide with him al- the dwarfs. Even now we were not ways in that secret lunar empire. Us, happy; for we remembered a prophecy too, the other dwarfs appeared to love of the old man, that though he might more than we wished. And we found restore us to our home, and rescue us that we must either leave their domin. from the giants, short would be our ions or consent to inhabit them for enjoyment of thee whom we had re
We spake to the old King and fused him." said, that for thee it would be a woe- The companions embraced anew, ful doom to see no more our native and the fairy hung round her friend Faëryland; and that we intreated him like a rainbow on a smooth green hill. of his goodness and wisdom to enable The fairies now poured in on all sides, us to dwell there without further peril. singing and exulting in their own Ruby tears fell from his ruby eyes land, though not without a thought of upon his golden beard as he turned grief from the dwarf's prophecy. The away, and the faces of all Dwarf- sun was hanging over the sea, and land were darkened.
gilding the shore, and they looked at “No long space seemed to have the bright waters, and marked the passed before we were summoned again spot where they had first discerned the to the great hall, while thou wert left Sea-Child's swimming cradle. Lo! sleeping in the moon-garden. The there was again a speck. A floating King was on his throne, the dwarfs shape appeared, and came nearer and were seated round. But instead of the
It looked a living thing. pillars we had seen before, the metals Soon it touched the shore, and they now had all become transparent, and saw a figure like that of the Sea-Child, in the midst of each stood one of our but taller, and stronger, and bolder, enemies the giants, with one heavy and in a stately dress. The fairies hand hung down, and clenched as if said in their hearts—it is a man! Then in pain, and the other raised above his he seemed not to see but only her. head, and sustaining the capital of the She was frightened, but with a mixcolumn. The small gold plate, with tureof gladness at his appearance; and its gold pin, still spun incessantly on was trembling and nigh to sink, when the nose; the blue eyes still watched he took her in his arms, and spake to it cunningly ; the flakes of fire her of hope and joy. streamed off and flew between the pil- “I am come from distant lands lars, and scorched the faces and brown- upon this strange adventure, warned red shoulders of the giants. Our in dreams, and by aërial voices, and by enemies grinned and writhed when ancient lays, that here I should find they saw us, but seemed unable to
my bride, and the queen of my new utter any sound. The dwarfs also dominions.' did not speak, but the King rose and He, too, was beautiful, and of a moved before us. His beard fell over sweet voice, and she heard him with his shoulders, and formed a path on more fear than pain. When she wbich we walked. We proceeded on looked around, she no longer saw the and on, till the Dwarfland seemed fairies near. There were gleams changing, and daylightfaintly fell upon floating over the landscape, and quius. The King grew more and more vering in the woods, and a song of like the stones and trees around ; and sweet sorrow-so sweet, that, as it died at last, we knew not how, but instead away, it left the sense of an eternal of his figure before us, there was only peace. a cleft in the rock, nearly of the same
Thus did the land of England reshape. The golden beard was now a ceive its first inhabitants. Ever since track of golden sands such as we had has it been favoured of the fairies; the often seen before, with the bright sun- dwarfs have enriched it secretly, and shine falling on it. We were again in the giants have upborne its foundations our own world of Faëry. But oh, dear upon their hands, and done it huge Sea-Child! I cannot say the grief that though sullen service. smote us when we missed thee. We
“Celebrare domestica facta."-HOR.
In a former notice of Casuistry, we ature: but these were not sufficient. touched on such cases only as were of Since then, we have had occasion to public bearings, or such as (if private) think closely on that question. We were of rare occurrence and of a tra- have had occasion to review the pubgical standard. But ordinary life, in lic records of Christendom; and beits most domestic paths, teems with yond all doubt the public conscience, cases of difficult decision; or, if not the international conscience, of a always difficult in the decision of the people, is the reverberation of its priabstract question at issue, difficult in vate conscience. History is but the the accommodation of that decision to converging into a focus of what is immediate practice. A few of these moving in the domestic life below; a more homely cases, intermixed with set of great circles expressing and more public ones, we shall here select summing up, on the dial-plate, the and review ; for, according to a re- motions of many little circles in the mark in our first paper, as social eco- machinery within. Now History, what nomy grows more elaborate, the de- may be called the Comparative His. mand grows more intense for such tory of modern Europe, countersigns circumstantial morality. As man ad. the traveller's opinion. vances, casuistry advances. Principles “ So, then," says a foreigner, or an are the same: but the abstraction of Englishman with foreign sympathies, principles from accidents and circum- “the upshot and amount of this docstances, becomes a work of more effort. trine is, that England is more moral Aristotle, in his Nicomachean Ethics, than other nations."
66 Well,” we has not one case; Cicero, three hun- answer, “and what of that?” Observe, dred years after, has a few ; Paley, however, that the doctrine went no eighteen hundred years after Cicero, farther than as to conscientiousness;
the principle out of which comes There is also something in place as sorrow for all violation of duty ; out well as in time—in the people as well of which comes a high standard of as the century-which determines the duty. Mean time both the “ sorrow amount of interest in casuistry. We and the “ high standard” are very once heard an eminent person deliver. compatible with a lax performance. ing it as an opinion, derived from a But suppose we had gone as far good deal of personal experience as the objector supposes, and had that, of all European nations, the Bri- ascribed a moral superiority every tish was that which suffered most from way to England, what is there in that remorse ; and that, if internal strug- to shock probability ? Whether the gles during temptation, or sufferings general probability from analogy, or of mind after yielding to temptation, the special probability from the cirwere of a nature to be measured upon cumstances of this particular case ? a scale, or could express themselves We all know that there is no general sensibly to human knowledge, the an improbability in supposing one nation, nual report from Great Britain, its or one race, to outrun another. The annual balance sheet, by comparison modern Italians have excelled all nawith those from continental Europe, tions in musical sensibility, and in would show a large excess. At the genius for painting. They have pro. time of hearing this remarkable opin- duced far better music than all the rest ion, we, the hearers, were young ; and of the world put together. And four we had little other ground for assent of their great painters have not been or dissent, than such general impres- approached hitherto by the painters of sions of national differences as we
That facial structure, might happen to have gathered from again, which is called the Caucasian, the several literatures of Christian and which, through the ancient Greeks, nations. These were of a nature to has travelled westward to the nations confirm the stranger's verdict; and it of Christendom, and from them (chiefly will not be denied that much of na- ourselves) has become the Transatlantional character comes forward in liter- tic face, is, past all disputing, the finest
type of the human countenance divine of our Exchequer ; viz. that for much on this planet. And most other na- more than a century back, our Gazette tions, Asiatic or African, have hitherto and other public Advertisers, have acput up with this insult; except, indeed, knowledged a series of anonymous the Kalmuck Tartars, who are highly remittances from those who, ať some indignant at our European vanity in time or other, had appropriated this matter ; and some of them, says public money. We understand that Bergmann, the German traveller, abso- no corresponding fact can be cited lutely howl with rage, whilst others from foreign records. Now, this is a only laugh hysterically, at any man's direct instance of that compunction having the insanity to prefer the Gre- which our travelled friend insisted on. cian features to the Kalmuck. Again, But we choose rather to throw ouramongst the old Pagan nations, the selves upon the general history of Romans seem to have had “the call' Great Britain, upon the spirit of her for going a-head; and they fulfilled policy, domestic or foreign, and upon their destiny in spite of all that the the universal principles of her public rest of the world could do to prevent morality. Take the case of public them. So that, far from it being an debts, and the fulfilment of contracts improbable or unreasonable assump- to those who could not have compelled tion, superiority (of one kind or other) the fulfilment; we first set this precehas been the indefeasible inheritance dent. All nations have now learned of this and that nation, at all periods that honesty in such cases is eventually of history.
the best policy; but this they learned Still less is the notion tenable of any from our experience, and not till nearly special improbability applying to this all of them had tried the other policy. particular pretension. For centuries We it was, who, under the most trying has England enjoyed-Ist, civil liber.' circumstances of war, maintained the ty; 2d, the Protestant faith. Now sanctity from taxation of all foreign in those two advantages are laid the investments in our funds.
Our congrounds, the very necessities, à priori, duct with regard to slaves, whether in of a superior morality. But watch the the case of slavery or of the slaveinconsistency of men : ask one of these trade – how prudent it may always men who dispute this English preten- have been, we need not enquire;-as to sion mordicus ;-ask him, or bid an its moral principles, they went so far Austrian serf ask him, what are the a-head of European standards, that we benefits of Protestantism, and what were neither comprehended nor bethe benefits of liberty, that he should lieved. The perfection of romance risk
any thing to obtain either. Hear was ascribed to us by all who did not how eloquently he insists upon their reproach us with the perfection of Jesbeneficial results, severally and jointly; uitical, knavery ; by many our motto and notice that he places foremost was supposed to be no longer the old among those results, a pure morality. one of divide et impera, but annihila Is he wrong? No: the man speaks et appropria. Finally, looking back bare truth. But what brute oblivion to our dreadful conflicts with the three he manifests of his own doctrine, in conquering despots of modern history, taxing with arrogance any people for Philip II. of Spain, Louis XIV., and claiming one of those results in esse, Napoleon, we may incontestably boastTM which he himself could see so clearly of having been single in maintaining in posse ! Talk no more of freedom, the general equities of Europe by war or of a pure religion, as fountains of a upon a colossal scale, and by our counmoral pre-eminence, if those who have cils in the general congresses of Chrispossessed them in combination for the tendom. longest space of time, may not, with- Such a review would amply justify out arrogance, claim the vanward place the traveller's remarkable dictum upon amongst the nations of Europe. the principle of remorse, and therefore
So far as to the presumptions, gener- of conscientiousness, as existing in al or special ; so far as to the proba- greater strength amongst the people bilities, analogous or direct, in counte- of Great Britain. In the same pronance of this British claim. Finally, portion, we may assume in such a when we come to the proofs, from fact people a keener sensibility to moral and historical experience, we might distinctions ; more attention to shades appeal to a singular case in the records of difference in the modes of action
more anxiety as to the grounds of ac- by possibility some derangements of tion. In the same proportion, we may the human system are not incompaassume a growing and more direct re- tible with happiness ; and a celegard to Casuistry: wbich is precisely brated German author of the last centhe part of Ethics that will be continu- tury, Von Hardenberg-better known ally expanding, and continually throw. by his assumed name of Novalising up fresh doubts. Not as though a maintained, that certain modes of ill moral principle could ever be doubtful. health or valetudinarianism were preBut that the growing complexity of requisites towards certain modes of the circumstances will make it more intellectual development. But the and more difficult in judgment to de- ill health to which he pointed could tach the principle from the case; or in not have gone beyond a luxurious practice, to determine the application indisposition; nor the corresponding of the principle to the facts. It will intellectual purposes have been other happen therefore, as Mr Coleridge than narrow, fleeting, and anomalous. used to say happened in all cases of Inflammatory action in its earlier importance, that extremes meet: for stages, is sometimes connected with Casuistical Ethics will be most consult- voluptuous sensations : so is the preed by two classes the most opposite to ternatural stimulation of the liver. But each other-by those who seek ex- these states, as pleasurable states, are cuses for evading their duties, and by transitory. All fixed derangements those who seek a special fulness of of the health are doubly hostile to the light for fulfilling them.
moral energies; first, through the intellect, which they debilitate uncon
sciously in many ways; and next, CASE I. Health.
both consciously and semi-consciously
through the will. The judgment is Strange it is, that moral treatises, perhaps too clouded to fix upon a right when professing to lay open the great purpose: the will too enfeebled to edifice of human duties, and to expose pursue it. its very foundations, should not have Two general remarks may be ap. begun with, nay, should not have no plied to all interferences of the physiticed at all, those duties which a man cal with the moral sanity; 1st, That owes to himself, and, foremost amongst it is not so much by absolute deducthem, the duty of cultivating his own tions of time that ili health operates health. For it is evident, that, from upon the serviceableness of a man, as mere neglect of that one personal by its lingering effects
his temper duty, with the very best intentions and his animal spirits. Many a man possible, all other duties whatever may has not lost one hour in his life from ill. become impossible ; for good inten- ness, whose faculties of usefulness have tions exist in all stages of efficiency, been most seriously impaired through from the fugitive impulse to the rea- gloom or untuned feelings; 2dly, lizing self-determination, In this That it is not the direct and known life, the elementary blessing is health risks to our health which act with the What! do we presume to place it most fatal effects, but the semi-conbefore peace of mind? Far from it: scious condition, the atmosphere of cirbut we speak of the genesis ; of the cumstances, with which artificial life succession in which all blessings de. surrounds us. The great .cities of scend : not as to time, but the order Europe, perhaps London beyond all of dependency. All morality implies others, under the modern modes of free agency: it presumes beyond all life and business, create a vortex of other conditions an agent who is in preternatural tumult, a rush and frenzy perfect possession of his own volitions. of excitement, which is fatal to far Now, it is certain that a man without more than are heard of as express health, is not uniformly master of his victims to that system. own purposes.
Often he cannot be The late Lord Londonderry's nersaid either to be in the path of duty or vous seizure was no solitary or rare out of it; so incoherent are the actions So much we happen to know. of a man forced back continually from We are well assured by medical men the objects of his intellect and choice of great London practice, that the upon some alien objects dictated by
case is one of growing frequency. In internal wretchedness. It is true, that Lord Londonderry it attraeted notice
for reasons of obvious personal inter- the business of future negotiation ? est, as well as its tragical catastrophe. Could he suffer to lapse into other But the complaint, though one of mo- hands, as a derelict, the consummation dern growth, is well known, and comes of that task which thus far he had so forward under a most determinate prosperously conducted ? Was it in type as to symptoms, among the mers human nature to do so ? He felt the cantile class. The original predispo. same hectic of human passion which sition to it, lies permanently in the Lord Nelson felt in the very gates of condition of London life, especially as death, when some act of command was it exists for public men.
But the im thoughtlessly suggested as belonging mediate existing cause, which fires the to his successor-" Not whilst I live, train always ready for explosion, is Hardy ; not whilst I live.” Yet, in invariably some combination of per- Lord Londonderry's case, it was neplexities, such as are continually ga- cessary, if he would not transfer the thering into dark clouds over the trust, that he should rally his energies heads of great merchants ; sometimes instantly : for a new Congress was only teasing and molesting, sometimes even then assembling.
There was menacing and alarming. These per- no delay open to him by the nature of plexities are generally moving in coun- the case: the call was—now, now, just teracting paths: some progressive, as you are, my lord, with those shatsome retrograde. There lies a man's tered nerves and that agitated brain, safety. But at times it will happen take charge of interests the most comthat all comes at once; and then comes plex in Christendom: to say the truth, a shock such as no brain already pre- of interests which are those of Chrisdisposed by a London life, is strong tendom. enough (but more truly let us say- This struggle, between a nervous coarse enough) to support.
system too grievously shaken, and the Lord Londonderry's case was pre- instant demand for energy seven times cisely of that order : he had been wor. intensified, was too much for any genried by a long session of Parliament, erous nature. A ceremonial embassy which adds the crowning irritation in might have been fulfilled by shattered the interruption of sleep. The ner- nerves; but not this embassy. Anxievous system, ploughed up by intense ty supervening upon nervous derangewear and tear, is denied the last re- ment was bad ; anxiety through resource of natural relief. In this crisis, sponsibility was worse ; but through already perilous, a new tempest was à responsibility created by grateful called in -of all the most terrificthe confidence, it was an appeal through tempest of anxiety: and from what the very pangs of martyrdom. No source ? Anxiety from fear, is bad: brain could stand such a siege. Lord from hope delayed, is bad : but worst Londonderry's gave way; and he fell of all is anxiety from responsibility, in with the tears of the generous even cases where disease or weakness makes where they might happen to differ a man feel that he is unequal to the from him in politics. burden. The diplomatic interests of Mean time, this case, belonging to a the country had been repeatedly con- class generated by a London life, was fided to Lord Londonderry: he had in some quarters well understood even justified that confidence: he had re- then ; now, it is well known that, had ceived affecting testimonies of the hon- different remedies been applied, or had our which belonged to such a situa- the sufferer been able to stand up untion. But a short time before his fatal der his torture until the cycle of the seizure, in passing through Birming- symptoms had begun to come round, ham at a moment when all the gen. he might have been saved. The treattlemen of the place were assembled, ment is now well understood; but he had witnessed the whole assembly- even then it was understood by some no mob, but the collective good sense physicians; amongst others by that of the place_by one impulse standing Dr Willis who had attended George bareheaded in his presence,-a tribute the Third. In several similar cases of disinterested homage which affected overpowering doses had been given of him powerfully, and which was well opium, or of brandy; and usually a
as offered to his foreign day or two had carried off the oppresdiplomacy. Under these
circumstances sion of the brain by a tremendous recould be bear to transfer or delegate action.