nounced, I have resolved to swear to vote. Not only was property not re. the constitution promulgated by the quired as a qualification; it was not General and Extraordinary Cortes in even allowed as a ground of preference. the year 1812, which you are to hold This, we conceive, must, as society is' as understood, and to order its prompt now constituted, be a radical defect in publication.

vite every representative system. Intelli" I, THE KING. gence, anda certain degree of property. " At the Palace, March 7th, 1820." must, at the long run, go together.

The system of universal suffrage neThus was established, without any cessarily throws the entire nomination modification, the constitution of 1812. into the hands of the lowest, because Under the circumstances of tardy and greatly the 'most numerous class ; a enforced acceptance on the part of the class of all others the least qualified to King, there was scarcely room for the judge well of men and measures." In formation of any other. Having re- hopes of breaking the force of the defused the slightest concession, till hemocratie 'impulse, a cumbrous" mafelt the sword at his breast, he was of chinery was adopred of election by course, when matters came to that cri- stages. The body of voters in each sis, obliged to accept any thing which parish chose an electoral body, which they chose to dictate. Even the peo- elected an elector to be sent to the asple themselves had scarcely a choice. sembly of the district. The district To have entered upon the tedious and electoral assembly chose a member for difficult task of forming a new consti- the electoral assembly of the province, tution, to which the only power yet! which assembly at last nominated the organized was decidedly hostile, would deputies to the Cortes in the proporhave been tob hazardous. They had tion of one to every 70,000 of the poscarcely an alternative but to take the pulation. Into all these elaborate pro constitution which they found ready cesses, however, no element ever en made. The choice, or the accident, tered, except that of the original dewas, in our opinion, not fortunate.mocratic electing body, which, though The constitution bad been formed by it might at first, by these arrangements, men of intelligence and reflection, but of be kept in some degree under influence, little political experience, and too deep. could not fail soon to learn its strength. ly imbued with the principles which A peculiar inconvenience seems to arise dictated the French constitution of from all the deputies of a province being 1791. Being formed in Cadiz, while elected by one assembly met in the caall the leading points of the Peninsula pital. The deputies to the Corres, inwere occupied by French armies, ii stead of being of different views and was organized without any concura tempers, according to the different disrence, either of the King or the arise tricts of the province, will be all of tocracy ; 80 that the interests of those that party which has obtained a majobodies, particularly the latter, were rity, however small, in the one elector. very little regarded. The defects ari- al assembly. The deputies from any sing from these circumstances, will, we province would thus afford no view of think, appear on an examination of its the variety of sentiment prevailing in particular elauses.

that province ; a great patt, sometimes As a representative system, it prou nearly the half of its districts, would ceeded upon the broadest principle of be left without any representation in universal suffrage. Every citizen, ar: the national Cortesansnow,90.39! rived at full age, and holding a domic The next peculiarity in the Spanish cile within the kingdom, bad an equal constitution, consisted in the entire 'exclusion of any other legislative as- for the display of their powers, we sembly, except the one of the Com- have no doubt that they would have mons, thus constituted by universal been found to be composed of the suffrage. The aristocracies of the cler. same materials as the rest of mankind. gy and nobles have reither, a separate The Sovereign, the third branch of House to themselves, nor any power of the political system, was by no means sending deputies to the one assembly, left in the same destitute situation. He which constitutes the entire Cortes. wanted indeed some powers which beNow, we believe that in all sober, and long to the British Sovereign. He practical systems, two Houses are con. had not the power to prevent the assidered essential to good legislation. sembling of the Cortes, nor, when it Even America, whose constitution is was assembled, to dissolve it. That entirely formed on a republican basis, body, after completing its annual sesa has its Senate, to share and balance the .sion of three months, left a permanent power of the House of Representatives. deputation of seven, with instructions In Spain, the aristocracies of the no. to watch over the maintenance of the bles and clergy possessed such exten, constitution, and, if it should appear sive wealth, that the denial of all voice necessary, tocall upon the King to con1o the national assembly placed them voke an extraordinary Cortes. In the in a state peculiarly defenceiess; while passing of laws, he was allowed only the high influence which the latter es. a limited veto. He might reject a pecially possessed over the minds of law presented to him by the Cortes the people, rendered it exceedingly during two successive sessions ; but if difficult to maintain any system, to again presented in the third session, which they were essentially hostile. It his sanction could no longer be refused. is indeed currently reported, that the The royal patronagewas limited by the nobility of Spain are so far corrupted nomination of a Council of State, conand degraded, as to be incapable of sisting of forty members, each of whom that manly and dignified exercise of were to be chosen by the King, out of their powers, which is required in a a list of three furnished by the Cortes. legislative body. Considering how Whenever an ecclesiastical or judicial much it has been the fashion of the pre- office was to be filled, this body fursent age to decry all privileged bodies, nished to the King a list of three, out we are led to doubt, after all, whether of which he made the selection. As the Spanish nobility be, materially he retained, however, the uncontrouled worse than other nobilities. Several disposal of all civil and military apof the highest rank, Romana, Albue pointments, his patronage could not querque, Parqne, &c. distinguished be said to be reduced within very narthemselves by their military talents, row limits. No treaty of offensive alin the war

of liberation;-others have liance was valid, without the approbabeen eminent for their literary quali- tion of the Cortes. 4. In other respects fications. Among such a body, in the Spanish Monarch had the same every country, there is a great deal of powers as the King of Great Britain. idleness and dissipation; and the Spa- The limitations actually fixed seem nish pobility, possessed of immense founded upon good reasons, and leave wealth, without any political action or still untouched the most important atinfluence, were naturally thrown more tributes. The want under which the particularly into these habits. But if Spanish King laboured, was that of a they had been placed in a more digni, graduation of powers; of something infied situation, and one affording scope termediate, to connect him with that purely popular body, which held the those which will render you worthy of sole legislative supremacy. Elements theloveof your fellow-citizensin peace, 80 opposite brought into mutual ac. and redoubtable to yourénemies iti war; tion, could scarcely escape collision, such, in fiue, are the duties which the and were inconsistent with any smooth King expects from you, and of which and regular movement of the political your first companion in arms will make machine, lo bubo)

it his ambition to set you an examples A general jubilee now took place “ It is thus that the august throne among the friends of liberty. The of Alphonso and of Ferdinand will government, with apparent good will, shed a lustre on this heroic nation, began to undo all that for the last six unknown

even in the most glorious years it had been busied in doing. The ages of the monarchy, and Ferdinand dungeons of Madrid, of Cadiz, and of VII., our beneficent King, the found Ceuta, gave up the tenants Aho, for er of Spanish liberty, the father of the 80 many years, had been unjustly im- country, will be one of the most happy, mersed in their gloomy cello. A royal the most powerful of monarchs, since decree suppressed the Inquisition, and he rests his high authority on the in ordained the public sale of all proper- destructible basis of the love and vety belonging to it. The liberty of the neration of his people."" ? press was established on the same foot

In the provinces, the constitution ing as by the former Cortes ; several had been either established before the political journals were established; the notice from Madrid arrived, or was coffee-houses of Madrid were convert- then instantly and harmoniously aced into political clubs The King and cepted. At Saragossa and Navarre, Royal family studiously exhibited it was proclaimed several days previ every symptom of a cheerful acquies- ous. At Barcelona, on the IOth March, cence in the new system. The Infant the people, though ignorant of the Don Carlos, on being appointed to the events at Madrid, compelled General command of the national army, made Castanos to follow the example. At an address to them, in which he said, Valencia, Elio with difficulty escaped “ Equally faithfulas yourselves to the from the fury of the populace to solemn oath which I have to-day taken save him, it was necessary to lodge before his Majesty, you will find me a him in the prison. In Galicia, San leader who willever conduct you in the Roman, who still headed troops in oppath which honour and duty

prescribe. position to the new systém, instantly To love and defend the country:; to called upon them to give their oath in supports with unalterable loyalty, the support of the constitution. 7 In Anthrone, and the sacred person of the dalusia, a friendly correspondence sucmonarch, who is the support of civil ceeded to the hostile operations beliberty and the national grandeur ;-to tween Riego and O'Donnell. One respect the laws to maintain public dismal event interrupted the general order; to submit to all-sacrifices which harmony, and cast a gloom oper la the common weal requires $ to unite change that wore otherwise so avspiin affection and sentiment with other cious an aspect.

2011 Povnou yo Spaniards, and to concur with them in General Freyre, who had hitherto the establishment and consolidation of acted steadily in support of the royal the constitutional system, to obserye authority, appears, on receiving intelan exact discipline, and

the subordina- ligence of the desertion of Absbal, co tion so necessary in troops;—such, sol. have suddenly formed an'o

opposite rediers, are your sacred duties ; such are solution. On the 9th, he entered Cas

diz at twelve o'clock, and announced conduct towards the deputies seems to his determination to proclaim the con- acquit him from the suspicions which stitution. As the people, who assem- were at the time strongly urged against bled in crowds, appeared impatient of him, but Valdes, who, as governor of any delay, he solemnly made oath to it, Cadiz, had always shewn an embitterand promised that the remaining so- ed enmity against liberal opinions, and lemnities should be duly performed on Campana, in consequence of a milithe following day. The people imme- tary order published by him

next day, diately raised a dag, inscribed - Long sanctioning the conduct of the sol. live the constitution, and Freyre our diers, were strongly suspected of at regenerator.” At the same time, they least approving this outrage. Two promised to bury all past enmities in days after intelligence was received at oblivion, An invitation was soon sent Madrid ; the soldiers were then seized to the chiefs of the army on the Isle of with alarm; and the inhabitants, rising Leon, to be present at the solemnity tumultuously, massacred several of of the approaching day. Quiroga, them. At length the government hahowever, declined attending himself, ving superseded Valdes and Campabut sent San Miguel, Arco Aguerro, na, and appointed O'Donoju governor Galiano, and another of his principal of Cadiz, with orders to make a strict officers. The night was now spent in inquiry into this unhappy affair, the joyful preparations for tomorrow's minds of men were gradually tranquil. festival, the fronts of the houses were lized. That part of General Freyre's lavishly adorned, and the whole body army, which shewed itself still averse of the people, in their festal dresses, to the new system, was dissolved ; the filled at ten o'clock the square of St Test united itself to the army of the Antonio. As they were waiting there Isle of Leon, which was thus swelled for the arrival of General Freyre to to 12,000 men ibute plist Layo begin the ceremony, a report of mus--39: The nation now occupied itself Squetry was suddenly heard, and the busily in the election of members for troops instantly began to fire on the the approaching Cortes. The operamultitude. The affrighted crowd fled tion was carrieds on tranquilly, and in all directions, pressed and overturn- with a decided preference of the libe. sed upon each other ; while the troops ral party Many who had been mempursued, massaering all whom they en-bers of the Cortes of Cadiz

were now countered. Even the houses did not re-elected ; to which were added Quishelter the wretched inhabitants; androga, and other military men, who Cadiz was for several hours like a city had taken an active part on the pregiven up to pillage. The carnage of sent occasionad: Meantime there were this dreadful day was afterwards found not even now wanting some anti-revotol amount to 460 killed, and upwards lutionary symptoms. 9 At Saragossa, of 1000 wounded. The deputies from on the 14th May, ea band of four the national army called upon General or five hundred men, invited by the Freyre for his pledged protection, monks, rushed to the public square, which he was able to

to make good only overturned the stone of the constituby conveying them out of his house tion, and soon raised a mob, who joinoby the roof, and thence to the fort of "ed them in rerying s Religion ! the

St Sebastian, Notwithstanding a long King ! down with the constitution!" investigation afterwards carried on, the General Haro, however, fell upon them origin of this dreadful affair was never with two regiments, and after killing fully ascertained. General Freyre's and wounding a considerable number,

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succeeded in dispersing the rest. The rounded by the representatives of the Marquis d'Alazan, to whose dissen- heroic and generous Spanish nation ; sions with Haro this disturbance was and when a solemn oath identifies my partly attributed, was removed from interests and those of my family with his situation as governor of the pro- the interests of my people. Since the vince.

excess of the evil has called forth the In Galicia, matters threatened to unequivocal expression of the general assume a more serious character. Don wish of the nation, an expression long Manuel Chantre, whose zeal has been dimmed by deplorable, circumstancesy already commemorated, united himself that are now banished from our me. with some other chiefs, who assumed mory, I have determined to embrace the title of the " Apostolical Junta of the system which the nation desired, Galicia.” They collected within the and to swear to the political constitufrontiers of Portugal a body of scat. tion of the monarchy, sanctioned by tered troops and peasantry, with which the general and extraordinary Cortes they crossed the Minho, and endea of the year 1812, since the crown voured to rouse Galicia into insurrec. and the nation have both recovered tion. In fact, before Espinosa could their legitimate rights, my resolution collect his troops, they had swelled to being the more free and spontaneous, between 2000 and 3000 men, and were as it is more conformable to the interests threatening Tuy Here, however, se of the Spanish people, whose happiveral encounters took place, in which ness never ceased to be the object of they were completely worsted, and my sincerest intentions. After taobliged to re-enter Portugal, with the king a view of the state of the differ loss of their standards and baggage, ent branches of administration, he con., Two of their chiefs were afterwards cluded : “ It is to the establishment delivered up by the Portuguese govern, and the entire and inviolable mainte. ment, at the urgent request of Spain, nance of the constitution, that I will They were found to maintain secret consecrate the powers which this same correspondence with malcontents in constitution assigns to the royal authoAndalusia, and even with secret com- rity; in it I will concentrate my power, mittees in the capital.

my happiness, and my glory." The 6th of June formed the impor- The address to be made in i reply tant and long expected day of the was the subject of some discussion ; meeting of the Cortes. A fortnight and that finally agreed upon, while it was consumed in the examination of very strongly expressed the feelings of their powers, and other preliminary duty and attachment, failed not to in matters; and it was 'not till the 9th sinuate pretty decided lessons as to July, that the solemn opening took what was their opinion of past events, place. The King was attended by the and what conduct they now, expected Queen, the royal family, and the corps to meet with from the King and his diplomatique. After renewing the oath Ministers." While,” it is said, they of fidelity to the constitution, he made act with the prudence and dignity his opening speech, in which he strong- worthy the representatives of a great ly expressed his attachment to, and de. and generous nation, the Cortes ex. termination to support, the

pect to find in your Majesty's governe der of things. «At length," said he, ment that vigour and co-operation " has come the day, the object of my which are absolutely necessary for the ardent wishes, when I see myself sure establishment of a new system, and for


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