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QUESTIONS INVOLVED IN SCHEDULE MAKING. 11

Seven schools—the principal, assistant principal, and department heads.

One school—the principal and assistant principal.

One school—the principal, assistant principal, and director of manual training.

One school—the principal and department heads.

One school—the principal and a committee of two teachers.

At what time in the school calendar is the program prepared for the next semester, term, or year?

One school reported 10 days before the end of the semester.

One school reported 1 to 5 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 2 weeks before the end of the semester.

Four schools reported 5 weeks before the end of the semester.

Six schools reported 4 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 4 to 5 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 4 to 6 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 6 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 8 weeks before the end of the semester.

One school reported 8 weeks before the end of the first semester and 6 weeks before the end of the second semester or year.

One school reported 4 weeks before the end of the first semester and 3 weeks before the end of the year.

One school reported 4 weeks before the end of the first semester and 12 weeks before the end of the year.

One school reported 2 or 3 weeks before the end of the year.

What determines the subjects and number of sections offered in the program?

Fourteen schools reported that the subjects and number of sections offered were based on a consolidation of subjects requested by present and prospective students for their anticipated programs.

Five schools reported that offerings were based on the consolidation of requests and were also based on the experience of previous semesters or years.

One school reported that the offerings were based on the experience of previous semesters or years.

One school reported that a general program ran from semester to semester and that pupils conformed to it, but that the program was modified by the number of pupils electing any subject.

Four schools—faculty advisers.

One school—faculty adviser and approval from home.

What provision is made for the lunch period of pupils?

The following schools reported that the session was suspended at noon, so that all pupils and teachers might lunch. The time for lunch is indicated for each school: One school—25 minutes; 1 school— CO minutes; 1 school—80 minutes.

One school reported that the session was suspended for one-half hour while some lunched. For others vacant periods were arranged so that they might be at home, with a time allowance of 60 minutes.

The following schools reported that vacant periods were arranged so that pupils and teachers might lunch while the school session continued. The time allowance and place for lunch are indicated as follows:

Four schools—no time or place indicated.

One school—90 minutes (home) ; 45 minutes (school).

One school—45 or 90 minutes (home) ; 45 minutes (school).

One school—60 minutes (home); 30 minutes (school lunch room).

One school—35 or 60 minutes (home); 35 minutes (school).

One school—50 minutes (home); 25 minutes (school).

One school—40 minutes (home); 40 minutes (school).

One school—45 minutes (school).

Two schools—30 minutes (school cafeteria).

One school—25 minutes (school).

One school—60 minutes (home).

How are vacant periods in a pupiVs program provided for?

The schools reported as follows: Fourteen schools—study room; 4 schools—study room or library; 1 school—no vacant periods; 1 school—library; 1 school—study room and rear seats in classrooms.

What is your method of avoiding conflicts?

One school did not report.

Seven schools reported methods (1) by placing sections of the same subject in different periods; (2) by placing subjects for pupils of a grade in different periods; (3) by making out a program for each pupil and assigning classes before the new term.

Four schools reported that they used the first and second means given above.

Five schools reported that they used the first means given above.

One school reported that the first and third means were used.

One school reported using the first and second means.

One school reported using the third means.

One school reported that as the program or schedule was made out first, pupils were not allowed to select conflicting subjects.

How are subjects placed with reference to teacher assignment?

One school did not answer.

One school reported that the wishes of the teachers were given consideration.

Two schools reported no reference to teacher assignment.

Three schools reported teacher assignment; that a teacher had two to five sections of the same subject and course.

Fourteen schools reported that reference was made so that vacant periods made a break in the teachers' schedules. Ten of the same QUESTIONS INVOLVED IN SCHEDULE MAKING. 13 QUESTIONS INVOLVED IN SCHEDULE MAKING. 15

schools reported that the number of preparations for each teacher was considered.

How are classes equalized?

One school reported that classes were equalized by assigning pupils the first day of the new semester.

Sixteen schools reported that equalization was obtained by assigning to classes the pupils indicated by the programs before the new semester. Nine of the same schools reported that shifting from class to class, the first days .of the semester, was used when necessary.

Four schools reported that classes were made equal in size by shifting from class to class during the first days of the semester.

How is room assignment provided for?

One school did not answer.

Four schools reported that assignments were made as far as possible so that a teacher might use the same room for all his classes.

One school reported an endeavor to keep teachers on the one floor.

Eight schools reported assignment of the same room to a teacher and the allotment of rooms best fitted for the respective subjects.

One school reported assignments according to the fitness of the rooms for the subjects.

Six schools reported endeavors to assign the same room for all a teacher's subjects, to keep teachers from moving from floor to floor, and to allot rooms best fitted for certain subjects.

Do you take into account individual differences?

One school reported that it did not take into account the individual differences of pupils but that it occasionally formed a special section for very slow pupils.

Twenty schools reported assigning according to difference as indicated below:

Two schools—intelligence, school grade, standing in subject matter, judgment of teachers, and choice of career.

Two schools—intelligence.

Three schools—intelligence and school grade.

One school—intelligence, school grade, and judgment of teachers.

One school—intelligence and standing in subject matter.

One school—intelligence, standing in subject matter, and judgment of teachers.

One school—intelligence and choice of career.

Three schools—intelligence and judgment of teachers.

One school—school grade.

One school—school grade, standing in subject matter, and choice of career.

One school—school grade and choice of career.

One school—school grade and judgment of teachers to some extent.

Two schools—judgment of teachers.

To what extent or through what grades is the policy indicated in the above question followed?

Five schools did not answer the question.

Ten schools indicated that the policy of grouping according to the intelligence was followed in certain subjects in the lower grades in most cases to a limited extent.

One school reported the policy in respect to intelligence was followed through the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades.

One school reported according to intelligence in the tenth and eleventh grades in English and mathematics.

One school reported according to intelligence in all subjects where there are four or more sections.

One school reported mental grouping in first year English and algebra. Freshmen may take modern languages and dull pupils may not begin Latin the first year.

One school reported grouping throughout the school life of the pupil according to school grade and choice of career.

One school reported grouping according to school grade throughout the school life of the pupil. This while not indicated is most likely also true in all the schools reporting.

Have you a flan whereby the time of recitation for a section is changed from an early hour one day to a later hour on another day?

All schools answered, " No."

IIoio can stvdents be advised to best advantage?

The first step in schedule making is to secure information from the pupils concerning their elections for the next semester. To secure dependable information on this point it is necessary that teachers and pupils and parents be given much information concerning courses, curricula, college entrance requirement, cultural and vocational values in courses, etc.

One of the authors devised the following material in order to give a summary of the information needed for an intelligent choice of subjects.

So many of the high-school subjects are elective that It behooves students to relate their elections to their vocational plans. In order to assist students in this planning, the following suggestions have been prepared:

1. In addition to our required units in English and mathematics, pupils iuterested in any field of engineering should include in their high-school course ihe following elective subjects: Algebra 2; solid geometry, manual training 1, 2; physiography; geometry 1, 2; chemistry; physics; and two years of a foreign language.

2. Students interested in medicine or denistry should take these electivos: Botany; chemistry; geometry 1, 2; physics 1; algebra 3; solid geometry and two years of Latin.

3. Students interested in forestry, agriculture, or horticulture should Include * these electives: Botany ; physiography; chemistry; geometry 1, 2; physics; alge

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bra 3; solid geometry; one year of manual training and all the agricultural work.

4. Students interested in law, journalism, diplomatic service, or public life should take three units of history; geometry 1, 2; considerable work in the language and some of the commercial courses.

5. Girls preparing to teach in the rural schools or to enter one of the normal colleges should include botany; home economics; geometry 1, 2; physics and music.

C. Students with indefinite vocational plans are advised to include in their course before the senior year at least two years of a foreign language, one year of history, one year of science, and one year of the manual arts' work.

7. All of our courses are given part or full credit by the leading normals, colleges, and universities. However, if you plan to enter a particular school, get acquainted with their requirements at once and plan your course with the advice of the principal.

8. Very few universities, colleges, or normal schools will admit pupils who have not completed 15 units including three years of English, two years of a foreign language, algebra, plane geometry, and one year of laboratory science.

9. If you are planning to take a college course, you should read and reread this sentence taken from the instructions issued by the University of Michigan: "It is expected that the principal will recommend not every graduate, but only those whose ability, application, and scholarship are of such superior grade that the school is willing to stand sponsor for their success at the university.

This material has the advantage of being brief and concise and also that of raising the question of the value of the different school studies.

There are also numerous ways of aiding students in choosing their subjects of study as is shown by the following returns from 21 large high schools.

Two schools reported that pupils make their own selections.

Two other schools reported that pupils make their own selections to some extent and where choice is easy, that selections were made in consultation with the principal or assistant principal occasionally when the cases were difficult, that the pupils also consulted faculty advisers, and that to some extent selections were made by the home or legal guardians of the pupils.

The following schools reported that pupils made their selections in consultations with the indicated parties:

One school—principal, assistant principal, and grade principal.

One school—principal, assistant principal, faculty adviser, and home or legal guardian.

Two schools—principal and faculty adviser or home-room teacher.

One school—assistant principal.

One school—assistant principal and faculty adviser.

One school—assistant principal and home.

Two schools—house principal.

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