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object to which they readily sacrifice every thing else.-The names of the persons, concerning whom FAITHFUL spoke, shows that his crime consisted in protesting, by word and deed, against vices which the great too often think them. selves privileged to commit without censure; and not in reviling the persons or misrepresenting the actions of supe. riors. The former may with great propriety be done at all 'times; and on some occasions the testimony against sin cannot be too closely applied to the consciences of the guilty,without respect of persons; but the latter is always unjust and unscriptural.

109..5. I say...FAITHFUL's defence is introduced by these lines, as in the foregoing instances

• Now, FAITHFUL, play the man, speak for thy God;
Fear not the wicked's malice, nor their rod:
Speak boldly man, the truth is on thy side;
Die for it, and to life in triumph ride.'

Christians, in such circumstances, should be more concerned for the honour of God than for their own credit or safety: they should take occasion to bear a decided testimony to the truths, commandments, and institutions of scripture; leaving it to their accusers, judges, or hearers, to determine what sentiments and practices are thus proved to be anti-christian, or what numbers of “teachers in ISRAEL” are exposed as blind guides. That faith, (by which alone we approach to God, and acceptably worship him,) has no other object than divine revelation; nothing done without the express warrant of scripture can be profitable to eternal life, what. ever may be said for its expediency; but every thing foisted into religion contrary to that sacred rule must be an abomi. nation. Human faith may please men; but without a divine faith it is impossible to please God, either in general or in any particular action. And as we seldom can speak against the vile lusts of men, without being judged by implication

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to rail against such as are notoriously addicted to them, we cannot be the followers of him “ whom the world hated, “ because he testified of it that its works were evil,” unless we be willing to risque all consequences in copying his example.

..26. The judge...A more just and keen satyrical description of such legal iniquities can scarcely be imagined, than that contained in this passage. The statutes and precedents adduced (with an humorous and well imitated reference to the style and manner in which charges are commonly given to juries) show what patterns persecuting legislators and magistrates choose to copy, and whose kingdom they labour to uphold. Nor can any impartial man deny, that the inference is fair which our author meant the reader to deduce; namely, that nominal protestants, enacting laws requiring conformity to their own creeds and forms, and inflicting punishments on such as peaceably dissent from them, are actually involved in the guilt of these heathen persecutors, and of their anti-christian successors; even if their doctrine and worship be allowed to be scriptural and spiritual. Such methods only serve to promote hypocrisy, and to expose the conscientious to the malice, envy, or avarice of the unprin. cipled. The names of the jury-men, and their general and particular verdicts, the cruel execution of FAITHFUL, and the happy event of his sufferings, need no comment. not indeed the practice of the times, to which this representation belongs, to inflict death on those who were persecuted for conscience' sake: yet very great rigours were used; the system then adopted, if carried to its consequences, must have ended in the extermination of all non-conformists from the land; it was natural to expect still greater cruelty from persons who were found capable of the severities already experienced; and without all doubt many actually lost their lives, in one way or other, by the persecutions to which they were exposed. All those who feel a disposition to employ the power of the magistrate against such as differ

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from them in religious matters, should attentively consider the contemptible and odious picture here delineated, with the most entire justice, of the whole race of persecutors, and of their characters, principles, motives, and conduct; that they may learn to hate and dread such an anti-christian practice, and shun the most remote approaches to it. On the other hand, they who are exposed to persecution, or in danger of it, should study the character and conduct of FAITHFUL, that they may learn to suffer in a christian spirit, and to adorn the gospel in the fiery trial.-The following lines are here introduced as before

• Brave FAITHFUL! bravely done in word and deed!
Judge, witnesses, and jury have, instead
Of overcoming thee, but shown their rage,
When they are dead, thou'lt live from age to age.'

112..1. As for... When the believer has done his work, the wrath of man may be permitted to expedite his removal to his heavenly inheritance, beyond which all the malice and power of earth and hell are utterly unavailing against him. Thus the apostles were preserved during Saul's persecution, and PETER was rescued from the hands of HEROD. The Lord has various methods of protecting and liberating his servants : sometimes he intimidates their persecutors; the paroxysm of their fury abates; or they are disheartened by ill success in their efforts to extirpate the hated sect; the principals and instruments are left to quarrel among them. selves; the cruelties they exercise so disgust the people, that they dare not proceed; political interests engage even un. godly princes to promote toleration, and chain up the demon persecution; or the Lord raises up one of his own servants to authority, that he may be a protector of his church, and disappoint the devices of his enemies.

..15. There was...' The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church;' for sufferings properly endured form the most

NOTES UPON PART I.

281

convincing and useful kind of preaching.-The name of CHRISTIAN's new companion denotes the opinion, which established believers form at first of such as begin to profess the gospel in an intelligent manner. The nature of an allegory rendered it impracticable to introduce the new convert, as beginning his pilgrimage from the same place, or going through the same scenes, as CHRISTIAN had done: neither could FAITHFUL, for the same reason, be represented as passing the river afterwards mentioned. But the brotherly covenant, in which HOPEFUL joined himself with his companion, must be supposed to imply the substance of all that had been spoken of, as necessary to his final acceptance.

..28. Whose name... The character of BY-INDS, and the group that attended him, forms a clear detection and merited condemnation of a large company of false professors, which is not at all inferior in importance to the preceding severe satire on open persecutors.--When “ rest is given to the " church,” hypocrites often multiply more than real christians. The name of this pretender to religion, and those of his town and connections, do not merely describe his original character and situation, (as CHRISTIAN was at first called GRACELESS of the city of DESTRUCTION) but they denote the nature of his religious profession. Believers look back on their former principles and behaviour with shame and abhorrence; but hypocrites, when reproved for evident sins, excuse them, because CHRIST came to save the lost, and shows mercy to the chief of sinners. CHRISTIAN would readily have granted that' no good lived' at his native city; he had, therefore, renounced it with all his old connections: but BX-ENDS hoped better of FAIR-SPEECH, and gloried in his honourable relations there. Yet he was ashamed of his name: for men are unwilling to allow that they seek worldly advantages by their religion, and nothing more.--The names, afterwards selected, are most emphatically descriptive of that whole species, who, with multiplied variations, suppose , " that gain is godliness;" as will manifestly appear to any

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reader, who attentively considers them. The polite simulation and dissimulation, which some most courtly writers have inculcated, as the summit of good breeding, the perfection of a finished education, and the grand requisite for obtaining worldly distinctions; if introduced into religion, and adopted by professors or preachers of the gospel, in connection with fashionable accomplishments and an agreeable address, con. stitute the most versatile, refined, and insinuating species of hypocrisy that can be imagined: and a man of talents, of any occupation or profession, may render it very subservient to his interest; by ensuring the patronage or custom of those to whom he attaches himself, without giving much umbrage to the world, which may despise such a character, but will not deem him worthy of hatred. He may assume any of the names here provided for the purpose, as may best suit his line in life; and may shape his course, in subserviency to his grand concern, with considerable latitude ; provided he has prudence enough to keep clear of scandalous vices: he will not be long in learning the beneficial art of using two tongues with one mouth, or of looking one way and rowing another : and perhaps he may improve his fortune by an honourable alliance with some branch of the ancient family of the FEIGNINGS. The grand difference betwixt this whole tribe, and the body of tque christians, consists merely in these two things :--the latter seek salvation by their religion; the former profess it, in order to obtain, in the n.ost advantageous manner, friends, patrons, customers, of applause: those follow the Lord habitually, whatever tribulations arise because of the word; but these conceal or deny their profession, when, instead of gaining by it, they are exposed to reproach or persecution.

114..17. Sir, you...The downright people of the world know how to serve MAMMON by neglecting and despising God and religion: the disciples of CHRIST can serve God by renouncing the world and its friendship: but time-sesvers talk as if they had found out the secret of uniting these two

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