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Plan of the year's history. Invasion of the Philippines designed. Descrip

tion of those islands, and of the city of Manila. Preparations at Madrass. Part of the squadron fent before the rest. The feet unites at Malacca. They arrive at Manilai N our last volume we were most other nations, lie at a great obliged to conclude our ac- distance from the hcad, expedi

count of the peace, before we tions of the utmost moment were had fully related all the transactions to be undertaken in the remoteft of the war. When Great tain

part of the globe. came to a rupture with Spain, the The nature of our plan, in which theatre of hoftility was infinitely en

the narrative, perhaps, presses too larged : As that war was in a great close upon the facts, constrains us measure a war upon commerce, it to relate things, not in the order of naturally became as extensive as its time in which they happen, but in object. And as the vital parts of that in which we come to the Spain, contrary to the condition of knowledge of them. In this in

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stance, that plan has not been at- 1521, by the famous navigator tended with any material inconve- Ferdinand Magellan they were nience. The fortune of the expe- added to the Spanish monarchy by ditions, depending during the ne- Don Lewis de Velasco, in 1564, gotiation of the peace, was not, in the reign of Philip the second, by the mutual consent of parties, under whom the Spanish dominion to have any influence on the terms was greatly augmented, and its of it. The places taken were to real strength, at the same time, fo be reciprocally restored. Wę, impaired, that almost two centutherefore, thought it more pru* ries have not restored it to its fordent to present to the reader anar mer vigour. The Philippines are rative of that important transaction, scarce inferior to any of the other. entire and unbroken, rather than islands of Asia, in all the natural postpone any part of it, until we productions of that happy climate ; had gathered in all the scattered and they are by far the best fituevents of the war. However, there ated for an extended and advantawere events, and some of them so geous commerce. By their posiconsiderable, to the knowledge of tion they form the center of interwhich we have arrived since the course with China, Japan, and the conclusion of our last year's labour, Spice Islands; and whilst they are that they ought by no means to be under the dominion of Spain, they omitted. They will furnith some connect the Afiatic and American thing to the entertainment we pro- commerce, and become the genepose for the public in the present; ral entrepôt for the rich manufacand they are such, as not unwor tures and products of the one, and thily close that great scene of na for the treasures of the othe. Ber tional glory, which Great Britain fides, they are well situated for a had displayed to the world, during supply of European goods, both the five laft campaigns. The chief from the side of Acapulco, and by of these was the expedition against the way of the Cape of Good ihe Manilas. Its importance will Hope. Justify that detail, in which we In fact, they formerly enjoyed a propose to consider it.

traffic in some degree proportioned The Manilas, or Philippines, to the peculiar felicity of their fituform a principal division of that ation ; but the Spanish dominion immense Indian Archipelago, which is too vast and unconnected to be .consists of many hundred islands, improved to the beít advantage. Some of them the largelt, and many The spirit of commerce is not of them by nature the riches in the powerful in that people. The 'world ; and which lic in the torrid trade of the Philippines is thought zone, extending from the 19th de- to have declined its great branch gree of north latitude, almost in a is now reduced to two ships, which continued chain, to New Guinea, annually pats between these iflands and to the neighbouring shores of and Acapulco in America, and to the great fouthern contient. a single port, that of Manila, in

The Philippines form the nor an iliand of the same name.., thernmost cluster of tice islands. But though declined, this trade They were discovered in the year is stil a vat object of protection

to

to Spain, and of hoftility to what- all these islands, and, indeed, the ever ration is engaged in war with only respectable place in them, is her. In the war, which began Manila, situated to the south-east in 1739, and which was not dif- of the island, and lying upon a tinguilhed by fach a series of won very fair and 1pacious harbour. derful successes as the last, the tak- The buildings, both public and ing of the gallean, which carries private, being mostly of wood, on the trade between Manila and have as much magnificence as such America, was considered as one of materials are capable of ; and the the most brilliant advantages which churches, in particular, are very we obtained ; and it has, accord- splendidly adorned. The Spaniingly, been much infiited upon in ards are discouraged from building all the histories of that period. with more durable materials by This galleon is generally worth the terrible earthquakes, to which more than 600,000 pounds sterling. the island is extremely liable. By

The principal island of the Phi- them the city has been more than lippines is called Manila, or Luco once thaken to the ground. This nia ; it is in length fomething more calamity is so frequent and dreadthan 300 miles ; its breadth is ex ful, as, in a great measure, to countremely unequal ; at a medium it terballance all the advantages of may be about 80 or go. The Spa- fo rich a foil, and so desirable a nish inhabitants, who are not nu climate. merous, have the government and The Spanish inhabitants, withthe best part of the cominerce; in the city, are about three thou. the Chinese are the artisans ; and fand. Ten thoufand Chinese occupy the soil is chiefly cultivated by the a large suburb called the Parian. natives. These latter are of vari On the conquest of China by ous origins, and of different de. the Tartars, in the last century, grees of favageness, according as great numbers Aed their country, they have been more or less lub- filling all the confiderable towns, dued by religion, or refined by not only of the Philippines, but of intercourse with strangers. For to the Moluccas and Sanda islands, large and fertile an island the with an ingenious and industrious number of inhabitants are but people, who brought with them, small; and the whole, perhaps, not and diffused into all

these countries, amounting to half a million ; and the skill of manufacture and the of those not' a third are in subjec- fpirit of commerce. The conqueft tion to the Spaniards.

of China had nearly the same effect The reft of the Philippine islands, in this part of the world, which the fo far as the Spanish power pre- revocation of the edict of Nantes vails in them, are under the go- produced in ours. Besides, the Pavernor of Laconia, but there are Tian, there are several other suburbs many of them, in which that na of great extent contiguous to this tion has little authority, or even city, inhabited by forty thousand of influence. There are in all about the native Indians, or by that mixed fourteen of them which deferve breed so common in all the Spanish notice.

colonies, resulting from that great The capital of Luconia, and of variety of races of men, who ori

ginally

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ginally inhabited, or came as ad- with Spain, lord Anson and lord Venturers, or were brought as flaves, Egremont were made acquainted kno their extensive dominions. with these observations concerning

From this short account it is via the state of the Philippine islands; sible, that the acquisition of such a they gave that attention to the inplace must have proved of very formation, which the importance of great advantage towards carrying it juftly_merited. They ordered on the war with Spain effectually, colonel Draper to give his ideas ir and

could not, therefore, fail of writing ; affuring him, that, if the having an advantageous influence war should become unavoidable on the terms of pacification. Ac- by the Spaniards joining with cord ingly it was resolved to make France, they would recommend an attempt upon the Manilas, from the undertaking to his majesty, a plan of operations delivered to The memorial upon the subject the ministry by colonel Draper; was greatly improved by the naval and, perhaps, the reader will be experience and judgment of capt. glad to know how this plan came Howe, who possesses all the noble to be formed.

qualities of his illustrious family, After the memorable defence of The motives for the undertak, Madrass in 1759, colonel Draper's ing (exclusive of the popular and bad tate of health obliged him to dazzling notions of booty and leave that country. Heembarked,in plunder) were very serious and incompany with the honourable capt. teresting, both in a commercial Howe, then commander of the Win- and political light. For Manila, chelsea, for Canton in China, a city in the poffeffion of an enterprising with which the inhabitants of Ma. people, is capable of ruining the nila carry on a confiderable trade. whole China trade of any other, Here they wisely spent that time

port

of Cavite can build, fit of relaxation from military opera- out, and man very large hips of tions, in attaining such knowledge war, which, if properly stationed, of the Philippine inands, as might no vessels could poffibly escape, afterwards be serviceable to their unless protected by a squadron, country, giving a lesson to all men Besides, with Manila in our hands, in public cmployment, that, at we might at all times depend on rimes when they cannot perform the proper respect being shewn to an active service, they may still do a our flag in the ports of that extenmaterial one by wise attention and five empire. On the other hand, the sensible obfervation. They dif- objections to the enterprize wete not covered, that the Spaniards of the inconsiderable. It was impossible to Philippine iflands, confiding in fpare either ships or troops from their remote distance from Europe, England for the conqueft, as the adfupposed an attack upon them im- ditional weight of Spain in the scale practicable, and were by that fatal of France demanded the utmost exsecurity, which is always the con- ertion of our power nearer home. fequence of an ill-founded confi- The valt distance of the object, and dence, lulled into a total inatten- the uncertainty of the time, in which rion to a regular military Atrength, the expedition could be undertaken,

Upon the first rumour of a war were, besides, no small difficulties;

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but they were foon obviated. No- tillery, and a body of feamen and thing was demanded but a light marines, were appointed to 'act frigate to carry colonel Draper to with them. Some companies of Madrass, where alone fuitable pre- feapoys (Indian soldiers who ferve parations could be made for this after the European" manner) were important enterprise.

added. In the whole, the force The colonel arrived at Madrass for the land operations' announted the latter end of June, 1762, to two thoufand three Hundred and on his arrival was appoint. men. The naval force confifted ed brigadier general and com- of nine men of wat and frigates, mander in chief of the expedi. befides fome ftore-thips: tion, which was to be undertaken The command of the land folely by the troops and squa- forces in this expedition was given, dron then in India. "No doubt, as as before mentioned, to brigadier we were become arbiters of the general Draper. Nobody was great peninfula of India, by the more perfectly acquainted with total expulfion of the French, and the fervice in that part of the by the humiliation of the Dutch, world, and nobody had thewn this attempt became more feasible. greater zeal to forward it. It was However, as this dominion was impoffible to forget the merit he Aew, and rather entered upon, had in the preservation of Madrass, than firmly established, something and in giving the East India'war, was to be dreaded even from the against Mr. Lally, the first turn in natives ; and, therefore, from this our favour. Admiral Cornish com, peninfula (the only place from manded the marine ; a'brave and which fuch an attempt could be able officer, and worthy tớ comade with any prospect of fuc- operate with fuch a general, in cess) fo great a force could not such an important service.

In be employed, as the difficulty three weeks the preparations for and importance of the enterprise forming this body; and getting feemed to require. But the spirit ready all the fores, were begun, of the troops, and the celerity and compleated, and the whole shipped judgment with which the prepara- through a raging and perpetual tions were made, compenfated surf, which in those climates is one every deficiency.

of the greatest difficulties in any The 79th regiment was the only expedition, extremely embarrafling regular corps that could be fpared, the embarkation, and rendering But this corps was, by reputation, ftill more hazardous the debarkaby fervice, and by being long in- tion, of troops, efpecially in the ared to the climate, almort equal to face of an enemy, who knows an army. By this regiment the pro- how to prost of this advantage. gress of the French in India had The celerity of those preparabeen first stopped. They had con- tions was necessary. In the East tributed not a little to the happy Indies, they are obliged to reguturn and decision of that war, un latë all their motions by the der colonel Coote; and they were course of the monfoons. The dow chosen to extend the glory of seafon for the expedition was far the English arms to the utmost advanced, when the plans and verge of Asia. A company of ar.. orders arrived; and, if the north

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