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mense waste of savage country was
formed the fouthern boundary. evidently to a commercial nation From thence striking the line to no great object for the present; the north-eaft, they carried it quite but it was a confiderable one in to the golph of St. Lawrence, hope, because it contained an in- through the high lands, which feexhaustible variety of soils, climates parate the rivers which fall into the and fituations, and thereby afford. great river of Canada from these ed ample materials for the exertion which fall into the ocean. This of wealth and skill in its improve- government is very short, almost ment to all the purposes of trade. upon every fide, of the extent of These exertions were not likely to the government of Canada, whilst be wanting, or to be ineffectual
. it continued in the hands of the Independent of national motives, French.
the man the adminiftration in England had They divided the southern part à particular interest in improving of our conquests on this continent those acquisitions to the utmost; into two governments, those of they were to justify the choice they Eaft and West Florida. The forhad made in preferring them to mer was bounded towards the the West India illands. They north by our colony of Georgia ; therefore took very great pains to to the east and south by the Atlancome at an exact knowledge of tic ocean and the gulph of Florida; every thing, which could tend to and on the west by the river Aparender our new conquests on this lachicola. continent Aourishing and commer The latter; or West Florida, was cial. To this end they judged it bounded on the east-by the same expedient to divide them into river. Its southern frontier ran three separate and independent go. along the gulph of Mexico to the vernments.
Lake Pontchartrain on one of the The first and most northerly of mouths of the Millsippi. This these divisions was called the go- great river formed its boundary to vernment of Quebec. It is bound the west unto the 31st degree of ed on the Labrador coast by the latitude, from which a line was river of St. John, or Saguenay. ftruck across for the northern limit, This river continues the boundary due eaft, until it met the aboveof the colony, as it runs from the mentioned river Apalachicola. westward, until you come to a lake, As to the shore of Labrador and which it meets in its course, called the adjacent isands in the gulph of the Lake of St. John.
St. Lawrence, their value confifts, To form the western boundary, in a manner wholly, in the fishery an imaginary line is here drawn carried on upon their coasts. : It is from that lake to another, which of importance to that branch of is fituated to the south-west of it, commerce to be under strict reguand is called Nipislim. At this Tations; and this could never be Take they changed the direction of well compaffed, unless the coast, the line, fo as to make it cross near which it is carried on, was the river St. Lawrence and the under a single direction. With Lake Champlain in forty-five de- great judgment, therefore, all the grees of north latitude; and this coast of Labrador from the river
Saguenay to Hudson's streights, and reason and equity. But we canall
the neighbouring islands, were not help observing, that the necesput under the care and inspection fity of such a restraint seems to deof the governor of Newfoundland. tract somewhat from the force of But the islands of St. John and those arguments which have been Cape Breton were annexed, as used to prove the value of our actheir situation required, to Nova quifitions on this continent. About Scotia.
the beginning of the war, a map The reader will observe, and pof- of the middle settlements was pufibly with some surprise, that in this blished, in which these back coundiftribution, much the largest, and, tries were for the first time laid perhaps, the most valuable part of down with exactness. A pamphlet our conquests, does not fall into accompanied the map, by the same any of these governments ; that author, who seemed perfectly well the environs of the great lakes, acquainted with that part of the the fine countries on the whole world. In this pamphlet it was course of the Ohio and Ouabache, asserted, that, notwithstanding the and almost all that tract of Louifi. 'valt extent of territory, which even ana, which lies on the hither branch then we possessed in North Ameof the Missisippi, are none of them rica, the nature of the country was comprehended in this distribution. such, that useful land began to be The government of West Florida scarce, and that our settlements extends in no part much above half muft Ahortly be checked and limita degree from the sea.
ed by this circumstance. The great Many reasons may be afligned expediency, almost the absolute for this apparent omiffion. A con- necessity, of a further extent of our fideration of the Indians was, we territories chere, was urged upon prefume, the principal, because it this principle; and many fchemes might have given a sensible alarm of trade and manufacture were to that people, if they had seen us grounded upon it. It is visible, formally cantoning out their whole that the execution of these schemes country into regular establishments. must be, for a while at least, surIt was in this idea that the royal pended. However, it is not improclamation of the 7th of Octo- probable that particular interefts, ber 1763, strictly forbids any pur- and, at that particular time, an inchases or settlements beyond the tention likewise in favour of the limits of the three abovementioned national intereft, may have persuagovernments, or any extension of ded these writers to represent the our old colonies beyond the heads scarcity of improveable land on the of the rivers which fall from the hither fide of the mountains to be westward into the Atlantic ocean; much greater than in reality it is. reserving exprefly all the territory Another reason, we fuppofe,why behind these as an hunting ground no disposition has been ma le of for the Indians. The crown, how the inland country, was, that the ever, retains its right of making charters of many of our old copurchases and agreements with the lonies give them, with very few Indians.
exceptions, no other bounds to the This restraint is founded on westward but the South Sea ; and
consequently these grants compre- every subaltern 2000; to every hended almost every thing we have non-commifioned officer 200; and conquered. These charters were to every private seaman and folgiven when this continent was little known' and little valued. This was a very ample and a They were then scarce acquainted very judicious encouragement, and with
any cther weitern limits than it will, no doubt, have its effect. the limits of America itself; and But as no encouragement unconthey were prodigal of what they nected with the idea of liberty can considered as of no great impor- be flattering to Englishmen, a civil tance. The colonies fettled under establishment, comprehending a royal government have, generally, popular representative, agreeable been laid out much in the fanic to the plan of the royal governmanner ; and though the difficul- ments in the other colonies, was dities which arise on this quarter are rected as foon as the circumstances not fo great as in the former, they of these countries will admit of it; are yet
sufficiently embarrassing. and in the mean time such regulatiNothing can be more inconve- ons are provided, as will not fuffer a nient, or can be attended with British subject in these new settlemore absurd consequences, than to ments to feel the least uneasiness admit the execution of the powers about his freedom. in those grants and distributions of That nothing might be wanting territory in all their extent. But for the security of new settlers, for where the weltern boundary of the ftability of the conquests we each colony ought to be settled, had made, and for awing as well is a matter which must admit of as protecting the Indian nations, a great dispute, and can, to all ap- regular military establishment also pearance, only be finally adjusted was formed for this country and for by the interpofition of parlia- our West India islands, consisting ment.
of 10,000 men,
divided into Until these difficulties can be twenty battalions. For the present removed, it will be impossible to these troops are maintained by think of forming any folid and ad- Great Britain. When a more calm vantageous settlement in the mid- and settled season comes on, they land countries. In the mean time, are to be paid, as is reasonable, by the administration in Great Britain the colonies they are intended to omitted no means of improving protect. those parts, which they could per
There was little doubt entertainfectly command. To encourage ed, that this prudent distribution of soldiers and feamen, who had ferv our new conquests, and the wise reed in the American war, to fettle gulations ettablished for them,could there, and at the fame time to not fail to draw both from them reward their fervices, lots of land and from all our old fettlements were offered to the officers accord- those advantages, on the prospect ing to the correspondent rank of which we began the war, and to which they held in the army and fecure which was the capital object the navy, sooo acres to a field of- in the peace. But our principal ficer ; to cvery captain 3000 ; to and most fanguine bope lay in that
entire security, which our establifh- and the faith of treaties, settle. ments were to enjoy from all mo ments were attempted beyond our leftation of the Indians, fince jaft limits. Purchases, indeed, were French intrigues could no longer made of the lands, and sometimes be employed to seduce, or French fair ones. But the indians, con force to support, chem.
scious of the weakness and facility Unhappily, however, we were of their own chara&er in all deal. disappointed in this expectation. ings, have often confidered a pur: Our danger arose from that very chase and an invasion much as the quarter, in which we imagined same thing. They expcet that our ourselves in the most perfect secu- reason will rather aid, than take rity; and just at the time when advantage of, their imbecilitys we concluded the Indians to be ens and that we will not fuffer them, tirely awed, and almost subjected even when they are willing, to do by our power, they suddenly fell those things which muit end in upon the frontiers of our most their ruin when done. valuable settlements, and upon vernment has always considered In
nur out-lying forts, with dian affairs in this light, and has such unanimity in the design, and ever been as careful as posible to with fuch favage fury in the at- prevent such private acquisitions. tack, as we had not experienced, The Indians were further alarm. even in the hotteft times of any for- ed, when they considered the fituamer war,
tion of the places of itrength we had When the Indian nations faw acquired by conquest and by treaty the French power, as it were, ani in their country. We possessed a nihilated in North America, they chain of forts upon the fouth of began to imagine that they ought Lake Erie, which secured all the to have made greater and earlier communications with the Ohio and efforts in their favour: The In- the Millisippi. We possessed the dians had not been for a long time Detroit which secures the comso jealous of them as they were of munication of higher and lower us. The French seemed America. We had drawn a chain intent on trade than settlement. of forts round the best hunting Finding themselves infinitely weak-country they had left ; and this cirer than the English, they supplied, cumstance became of the more feas well as they could, the place of rious concern to them, as such strength by policy, and paid a ground became every day more much more flattering and systema- scarce, not only from the gradual tical attention to the Indians than extending of our settlements, but we had ever done. Our superiori- from their own bad oeconomy of ty in this war rendered our re- this single resource of savage life. gard to this people still less, which They knew besides, that as no part had always been too little. Deco- of America was more necessary to rums, which are as necessary at least them, so none was more desirable in dealing with barbarous as with or desired for the purposes of an civilised nations, were neglected. European establishment; and they The usual presents were omitted. beheld in every little garrison the Contrary to the royal intentions germ of a future colony,
In the midst of these apprehen- the Indian nations nothing that fions a report was spread amongst was capable or willing to give the Indians, that a scheme was them any difturbance, they fell formed for their entire extirpation. gradually into more quiet dispofi: This scheme, fo shocking to huma. tions, and began to enjoy the fruit nity, we are unwilling to believe of that sovereignty they had so could ever have been countenanced long and so earnestly contended by any persons of rank and autho- for. rity in America. But the Indians The historians of our colonies did not do the same justice to their represent this people as originally intentions that we do ; and the re of very pure and severe manners. port of such a monstrous resolu- But they were corrupted by an intion had no small fare in urging tercourse with those nations, by them to a renewal of hoftilities. whose debauchery they wereenabled
The Indians on the Ohio took to conquer them. Luxury, of which the lead in this war. In treating there may be a species even among of American affairs, it is necessary favages, by degrees enervated the not only to state the relative fitua- fierce virtue of the Iroquois, and ţion of the Indians and Europeans, weakened their empire, as it has but that of the Indian nations to done that of so many others. Their one another; else it will be diffi- numbers, which their frequent cult to account for the part, which wars in some degree lessened, were many of these nations have acted yet more diminished in time of upon some late occasions.
peace ; and the renown of their It is well known that a con name, rather than their real power, federacy of favage tribes, whose for some time preserved that high principal residence is now to the and haughty authority, which they south-east of Lake Ontario, and for a long time continued to exerwho were known by the name of cise over a great part of America. the Iroquois, or Five Nations, During this latter period some made themselves the most consider- of the Indian nations, who inhaable of all the Indian powers of bited in the new fettled parts of America, about the middle of the Pensylvania, particularly theShawa. last century, and that they retain, nese and Delawars, who lived
upon ed their dominion and superiority the rivers Delawar and Susquethrough the greater part of the hanna, retired, as the cultivation present. They entirely subdued of the country advanced, back all the nations upon three of the upon the Ohio, and feated themgreat lakes, and upon all the ri- felves, there ; but they changed vers which fall into the Millisippi: their ancient feats, with the approThey were very neat driving the bation and confent of the Iroquois, French out of America, and for a whose subje&s they had been, and long time wasted their colony of fill continued to be, after this miCanada with a most cruel war. gration. But having fuffered some repúlfes At the beginning of the late in that war, becoming perhaps war, these were the Indians who ịcalous of the growing power of thewed themselves inoft active and the English, and finding among cruel in their ravages: upon our