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prudent to provoke the Indians ; harveft, if we exert ourselves proyet we have, I conceive, no very perly; all these circumstances will great ground to be apprehensive, never suffer this war to be of any concerning the final event of this continuance. The greaç point will war. As the enemy has not been be to prevent its breaking out able to prevent our throwing fuc- again. “For this purpose plans of cours into the places we poffefs in rigour never can have a good eftheir country, they can never take fect, nor can the ver be adopted them by any other means ; and by either an humane or a politic without taking them, it is impof- people. Habits of ill treatment fible that any success they may ob- to the Indians, must incite them tain in the field can be decifive, to a frequent renewal of hoftilities. the situation of these places is so This will keep alive at once their well adapted to distress their fron- military and their favage spirit. tiers, and interrupt their commu- They will always be enemies, and nications. Besides, Sir William barbarous enemies. Their extirJohnson has been indefatigable in pation will never be so certain a his negotiations with the Indians consequence of these wars, as the of the Six Nations, and will, pro- retardment of the growth and profbably be fuccessful. If he can perity of our colonies, which must Jucceed, even so far as to prevail be the inevitable result of them. on them to continue in their neu Whereas by kind and gentle treattrality, we must derive great ad- ment, the Indians will forget the vantage from his endeavours. The use of arms, which they will no whole weight of the war will then longer be forced to have recourse lie on the Ohio Indians and their to; their ferocity will be foftenconfederates ; and undoubtedly ed; their favage way of life will they will not be able to bear it. be altered; their wants will be inThe want of arms and ammuni- creased; and our people mixing tion, the supply of which can ne with them, first by commerce, and (ver be so certain in time of war; (when the prudence of governthe interruption from hunting, ment shall think it adviseable) by (their hunters and warriors being settlement, they will gradually generally the fame, and not only asimilate to the English, and, at a great part of their food, but their length, add usefully to the number cloathing and their arms, entirely of those, whom it is now their depending on this resource) and fole study to destroy. our power of deltroying their little

CHAP. VII.

Domestic affairs. Scheme of the supplies. Opposition to them. Arguments

against tbe lotteries, excife, &c. City of London address. Protest of the Lords. Arguments in favour of the excise. Various proceedings. Lord

B. resigns. Right hon. G. G. fucceeds. Situation of the minority. IN closing our last year's account Britain, we observed that the poliof the internal itate of Great tical dissentions, which firft arose

on

on the resignation of Mr. Pitt, facture or commerce. Befides, and which became more violent though taxes were full as necessary ou that of the duke of N, shewed, at the conclufion, as during the at that time, no kind of healing continuance of the war, that necefsymptom. During the continuance fity was not, to every person, so of the lesion, the party in opposition glaringly evident ; nor were they, endeavoured, by every poffible by any means, fo palatable, as means, to harrafs, fince it was evi- when victory and plunder seemed dent that, for the present at least, to pay, in glory and profit, for evethey could not easily subvert, the ry article of national expence. The administration. The opposition, advantages of the peace, though which was made in both houses to far more certain and solid, were any approbation of the peace, had less sudden aad less brilliant. been much more warm than effec In these difpofitions the people tive, though it was a topic upon were ready to fall into very ill which, of all others, it was expect- humours, upon any plan of fupply ed that they would chuse to dif- which could be suggested. The play their utmost strength. They, administration was very fenfible however, appeared extremely weak of this; and, therefore, determined upon it, and many persons did to lay as few new taxes as the then imagine, that no serious de- public service could possibly admit. fiyn was entertained by any body They were, perhaps, the more inof people, of branding with dif- clined to this reserve in opening grace a system, upon which it was new refources, in order to fhew absolutely necessary that the na that the nation was not very abuntion should repose itself for a long dant in them; and thereby to give time, to which, therefore, it was an additional proof of the neceflity proper the people should reconcile of the peace, and of the merit of their minds, and which had a ge- those, who had made so good an neral merit, fufficient to dispose one in such exhausted circumthem to acquiesce in the condi- ftances. Perhaps, too, in pursuing tions of it. The spirit of the party 'this method there was a design of was not, whatever their intentionis throwing a tacit reflection upon might have been, exhausted in this the expenfive manner in which the attempt. They lay in wait to fall war had been carried on. After upon the adminiftration in the such a war, and oppressed by so most critical time, and to wound heavy a debt, a ministry could not them in the most effential part, the wish to ground its reputation upsupplies. Several circumstances fa on a more solid bafis than that of a voured their design. The business real national economy. of impositions is, in itfelf, unpo In pursuance of this plan the pular ; minds discontented and fer- supplies were to be raised : first, tile can very readily and very plau- by taking 2.000,nocl. out of the fibly forebode almost any ill confe- finking fand; secondly, by striking quence from an untried tax; and 1.800.000l. in exchequer bills; there is scarce a public barthen, thirdly, by borrowing 2.870,000 1. which may not, with fome appear on annuities ; and laftly, by ance, be traced, in fpeculation, to two lotteries, for 359,00cl. each. the ruin of some branch of manu. [D]

To VOL. VI.

prudent to provoke the Indians ; harvest, if we exert ourselves proyet we have, I conceive, no very perly; all these circumstances will great ground to be apprehensive, never Tuffer this war to be of any concerning the final event of this continuance. The great point will war. As the enemy has not been be to prevent its breaking out able to prevent our throwing suc again. For this purpose plans of cours into the places we poffefs in rigour never can have a good eftheir country, they can never take fect, nor can they ever be adopted them by any other means ; and by either an humane or a politic without taking them, it is impof- people. Habits of ill treatment fible that any success they may ob- to the Indians, must incite them tain in the field can be decifive, to a frequent renewal of hoftilities. the situation of these places is so This will keep alive at once their well adapted to distress their fron- military and their favage fpirit. tiers, and interrupt their commu- They will always be enemies, and nications. Besides, Sir William barbarous enemies. Their extirJohnson has been indefatigable in pation will never be so certain a his negotiations with the Indians consequence of these wars, as the of the Six Nations, and will, pro- retardment of the growth and prosbably be successful. If he can perity of our colonies, which muf fucceed, even so far as to prevajl be the inevitable result of them. on them to continue in their neu Whereas by kind and gentle treattrality, we must derive great ad- ment, the Indians will forget the vantage from his endeavours. The use of arms, which they will no -whole weight of the war will then longer be forced to have recourse lie on the Ohio Indians and their to their ferocity will be foftenconfederates ; and undoubtedly ed; their favage way of life will they will not be able to bear it. be altered; their wants will be inThe want of arms and ammuni- creafed ; and our people mixing tion, the supply of which can ne with them, first by commerce, and (ver be so certain in time of war; (when the prudence of governthe interruption from hunting, ment fall think it adviseable) by (their hunters and warriors being settlement, they will gradually generally the fame, and not only affimilate to the English, and, at a great part of their food, but their length, add usefully to the number cloathing and their arms, entirely of those, whom it is now their depending on this resource) and fole ftudy to destroy, our power of destroying their little

CHAP. VII.

Domestic affairs. Scheme of the supplies. Opposition to them. Arguments

against the lotteries, excise, &c. City of London address. ' Protest of the Lords. Arguments in favour of the excise. Various proceedings. Lord

B. resigns. Right bon. G. G. Jucceeds. Situation of the minority. IN N closing our last year's account Britain, we observed that the poliof the internal Atate of Great tical dissentions, which firft arose

on

on the resignation of Mr. Pitt, facture or commerce. Befides, and which became more violent though taxes were full as necessary on that of the duke of N, shewed, at the conclufion, as during the at that time, no kind of healing continuance of the war, that necefsymptom. During the continuance fity was not, to every person, fo of the feßion, the party in opposition glaringly evident ; nor were they, endeavoured, by every possible by any means, fo palatable, as means, to harrafs, fince it was evi- when victory and plunder seemed dent that, for the present at least, to pay, in glory and profit, for evethey could not easily subvert, the ry article of national expence. The administration. The oppofition, advantages of the peace, though which was made in both houses to far more certain and folid, were any approbation of the peace, had less sudden aad less brilliant. been much more warm than effec In these difpofitions the people tive, though it was a topic upon were ready to fall into very ill which, of all others, it was expect- humours, upon any plan of fupply ed that they would chufe to dif- which could be suggested. The play their utmost strength. They, administration was very fenfible however, appeared extremely weak of this; and, therefore, determined upon it, and many persons did to lay as few new taxes as the then imagine, that no serious de- public service could poflibly admit. sign was entertained by any body They were, perhaps, the more inof people, of branding with dis- clined to this reserve in opening grace a system, upon which it was new resources, in order to fhew absolutely necessary that the na that the nation was not very abuntion should repose itself for a long dant in them; and thereby to give time, to which, therefore, it was an additional proof of the neceflity proper the people should reconcile of the peace, and of the merit of their minds, and which had a ge those, who had made so good an neral merit, fufficient to dispose one in such exhausted circumthem to acquiesce in the condi- ftances. Perhaps, too, in pursuing tions of it. The spirit of the party 'this method there was a design of was not, whatever their intentions throwing a tacit reflection upon might have been, exhausted in this the expenfive manner in which the attempt. They lay in wait to fall war had been carried on. After upon the administration in the fuch a war, and oppressed by ro most critical time, and to wound heavy a debt, a ministry could not them in the most essential part, the wish to ground its reputation upsupplies. Several circumstances fa on a more folid basis than that of a voured their design. The business real national economy: of impositions is, in itfelf, unpo In pursuance of this plan the pular; minds discontented and fer- fupplies were to be raised : firit, tile can very readily and very plau- by taking 2.000,nocl. out of the fibly forebode almoit any ill confe- finking fund; fecondly, by striking quence from an untried tax; and 1.800.000l. in exchequer bills; there is scarce a public barthen, thirdly, by borrowing 2.850,000 l. which may not, with me appear- on annuities ; and laftly, by ance, be traced, in fpeculation, to two lotteries, for 359,00cl. each. the ruin of some branch of manu [D]

To VOL. VI.

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To pay the interest on these loans, fand of payment will then be enamounting, in the whole, to larged, and econony will have 7-300,oool. an additional duty of something upon which to operate. eight pounds a tun was laid upon all In any other method, frugality was wines of the growth of France, and mean and sordid in the practice, four pounds a ton upon all other and would certainly prove trifling wines,

in the effect : that it might ftarve So far as this duty went, the many useful parts of public serscheme was perfectly unexception- vice, but muit ever be found a friable; but another duty was added, volous and fallacious resource toconcerning which very, fober men wards the discharge of the public might have had their doubts, and debt. To the lottery loan they which gave to all the discontented objected the enormous profit which the faireft opportunity, which could was allowed to the fubłcribers, exbe furnished, of raising a popular cla- ceeding that of former occasions, mour, and inflaming the whole na- without any alteration in the state tion. A duty of four fillings a of public credit; two lotteries, for hogshead was laid upon cyder, to the first time, established in one be paid by the maker, to be col- year, without any urgent neceflity; lected by the officers, and to be and the incitement, which must subjected (with some qualifications) thence arise to the pernicious spirit to all the laws of excise*.

of gaming, which cannot be too Those who led the opposition much discountenanced in every differed in opinion with the trea- ftate governed by wisdom, and a sury upon every particular in this sober regard to the morals of the plan. And, first, they quarrelled people. As to the money that was with that dreadful new taxation, to be taken from the sinking fund, upon which almost the whole they looked upon it as a kind scheme of fupply was founded. of sacrilege. They thought that They held, for 'obvious reasons, scarce any neceffity could, in our and in direct contradi&tion to the fituațion, be pleaded in favour of advocates of the ministry, that the a perversion of this fund from its nation was far from exhausted; that original purposes to the current there were resources for carrying service ; that the appearance of on the war at least two years tenderness for the people in this longer, and much more towards scheme was altogether deceitful, clearing off incumbrances on the when they were exonerated for a peace, that, as individuals abound time, only to be burthened more in wealth, and as the public is heavily hereafter, and that their loaded with so immense a debt, present case muft infallibly cause it was in such circumstances the their future weakness. dictate of the wisest and most en But it was on the topic of the larged policy to add as much as cyder excise, (the only fund abropossible, by bold and liberal grants, lutely new which was chosen) on to the income of the nation; the which the clamour was most violent,

TAT * For a particular account of this act, see the appendix to our Chronicle; and for a more minute account of these fupplies, lee cur ariile under that titk.

especially

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