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weft monsoon fhould set in with from England, the government of any degree of violence, before they the conquered country was to be were advanced in their voyage, vested in that body; the land and the success of the whole enterprise fea forces, by common consent, would have been rendered exceed- were mutually to participate in the ingly precarious. There was, be- distribution of their several cap fides, another confideration, which tures, according to the rules eitademanded all possible halte ; this blished in the navy. These precauwas, that the English army might tions had so good an effect, that no come to its destination, before the circumstance of disagreement once news of a war being actually broke arose between the army and the out between Engiand and Spain marine, either in the conduct of could reach the Manilas, and, by the enterprise, or in the divifion of rouzing the Spaniards from their the advantages of it. Nothing dif-. ill-grounded security, give them tinguishes this war more from every time to put themselves into the former war, in which we have been best posture of defence.
engaged, than that, in so many conThe judgment, with which every junct expeditions, and in such a arrangement was made, equalled vast variety of difficulties and of the celerity of the preparations. fervices, there was fo perfect an A ship of force was dispatched be- harmony, and fo cordial a co-opefore the fleet through the streights ration between the land and the of Malacca, in order to watch the sea forces, that there is not a single entrance of the Chinese fea, and to instance of the least degree of disa intercept whatever vessels might cord or diffention between them. be bound to Manila, or sent from Nothing can more advantageously the neighbouring settlements, to characterise the spirit of the age. give the Spaniards notice of the All things being thus judiciously design. As it was necessary to take disposed, and all difficulties forein water at Malacca, a division of seen and provided for, the last and the squadron,, with a confiderable grand divifion of the fleet set sail part of the land forces, was sent from Madrass the first of August
off, before the rest 1762. On the 19th of the same 29th of Ju- could be got ready, in month they arrived safe at Maly, I762.
order that a moment lacca, formerly considered as the of superfluous delay might not hap- key of the Indian commerce, pen to the fleet in procuring this and fill the center of a very connecessary refreshment.
fiderable trade. It had formerly Before they failed, every thing been disputed between the then was settled with relation to the co great naval powers in India, Pora operation of the land and sea tugal and Holland, as a port of the forces, to the distribution of the utmost moment in determining the plunder, and to the government of absolute sovereignty in those feas; the place, in case it should be because it commands the grand taken, that no dispute might arise communication between China and in the course of their operations. Indoftan, and that it is a situation, The East India company were, by which has a considerable influence agreement, to have a third of the on all the islands that compose the booty, or the ransom ; by orders great Indian Archipelago. But at
this time, so great was the revolu- ceffary not already provided for tion in this part of Ala, and the the fiege they meditated fuperiority of the English was such, The weather favoured them vethat it was of no great moment to ry much. Without the least dirchem, in whose hands Malacca was. trefs to the squadron, or the dir: The Dutch, who could look with perlior of any of the ships which no very favourable eye upon our composed it, in thirty-one days progress in those eastern regions, from Malacca they were, neither in spirit nor condi
: came in light of Lu? 19th of Sep : tion to give any check to it. The cônia." At that time, rembersic: English fleet used Malacca as a indeed, the squadron was separated, port of their own, and there they and driven out to sea, but they supplied themselves, not only with foon recovered the shore, and again refreshments, but with every ne- completed their jundion.
C Η Α Ρ. ΙΙ. Condition of Manila. The forces landed. A fally of the enemy. They are
repulsed. Ships brought against the town. À violent formThe Spaniards and Indians make two attempts on the English camp. Repulfed in both. Chara&ter of these Indians. A breach made in the furtifcations, The town fformed. The citadel surrenders. Capitulation, by which all the Philippines are surrendered. 7HEN the British armament ceed dire@ly to the grand ob
arrived upon the coast of Lu- ject, judging very properly, that conia, they found the Spaniards a conqueft there would of course absolutely unacquainted with the occasion, and draw after it the fall breaking out of the war, conse- of Cavite. The delay- naturally quently unprepared, and in all that attendant on the first plan would confufion, which neceflarily at have given time to the Spaniards tends a sudden and precipitate dif- to recover their fpirits, dismayed position againft an attack. That by the sudden appearance of an they might have as little time as enemy on their coasts, which had possible to recover from this con been long unaccustomed to the afufion, fo favourable to our'enter larms of the war, they would have prize, it was determined that the had leisure to clear away the build: forces should be landed, and the o-' ings which obstructed their fortiperations commenced immediately. fications, to put their works in
A small fort and town lay upon repair, and to take every step tothe harbour of Cavite, which was. wards an orderly, and therefore, conveniently fituated to frengthen probably, an effectual defence. Manila, and might afford an ufe- Besides, the fhifting of the monful station for thips during the foons began to display itself by vefiege. The firft idea was to begin ryevident and alarming signs. The with the attack of this fort; but weather grew uncertain and me
consultation between Mr.“ nacing; the rain begin to pour Draper and the admira!, it was down in tcrrents the winds became concluded more adviseable to pro boillérous; and it was greatly to
be feared, that, if the operations tives, a fierce and daring people, should be drawn into any consider who in a short time came to the able length, the overflowing of the assistance of the place with a body country of the country would have of ten thousand men, armed in made all approaches to the place their barbarous fashion. by land impra&icable, whilst the The governor was, indeed, a tempestuous weather would have churchman, the archbishop of the rendered the assistance of the squa. Manilas, by a policy not wholly dron precarious in the fiege, and without precedent in the Spanish even its safety very doubtful. colonies, in which they have been
The dispositions for landing known more than once to unite were made a little to the south of not only the civil government, but the town. The boats were ranged the command of the forces, with in three divisions, under the pro- the ecclesiastical dignity. But tection of the men of war., Fri, however unqualified by his chagates were ordered to the right and racter, for the defence of a city atleft, by a brisk fire to cover their tacked, the archbishop seemed not flanks, and to disperse the enemy, unfit for it by his fpirit and resowho began to assemble in great lution. These, together with the numbers, both horse and foot, to obstructions which arose from the oppose the descent. Measures feason, (which grew daily more were so well taken, that the ene- embarrafling) were the difficulties my retired from the fire of the our army had to contend with. On squadron, and left the coast clear, the other hand they had many cirThe English with an even front constances in the
their favour. The made towards the shore, and thro' ditch of the town, in fome impora violent surf, which dashed many tant parts, had never been com24th of Sep- pieces, but fortu- of repair ; the glacis was too low ;
to pleated ; the covered way was out TAHA nately without any some of the out-works were not lofs of lives) gained the coast, and armed; and the suburbs, which formed upon the beach.
they had not time to burn, affordThe days which immediately ed shelter to our rroops, and coverfucceeded their landing were spent ed them in their approaches. in feizing the most advantageous The ability of the commanders, posts, in securing the communica- and the spirit of the t:oops, made tion with the navy, and in recon- use of all these advantages, and noitring the roads and approaches to overcame all thele difficulties. the town. They found it regular- The country being almost wholy ly fortified, and defended. by some flooded, they were obliged to good works, , number of excel throw themfelves into the houses, lent cannon, garrisoned by about which were under the fire of the 800 regular troops, and incapable bastions, and the Spaniards canby its extent of being compleatly nonaded their quarters, which were invested by such an army as ours, nearer to the walls than the ordi. and ins a condition, therefore, of Dary rules of war prescribed. Nebeing constantly fupplied from the ceffity superseded these rules; and country, and reinforced by the na even the precipitation with which
they were obliged to urge their conducting into che town the gomotions, had a good effe&, and vernor's nephew, who had been probably haftened the decifion of taken: Their savage cruelty enthe fiege in their favour sooner titled them to no mercys and than could be expected from a whenever they fell into the hands more regular proceeding, and more of the English soldiers, they favourable circumstances,
found none:... mengal.. b.... Before batteries could be erect. As little fuccefs attended the ated, the enemy attempted a fally tempt in which-this cruel action t6th of Sep- dred men. But this in their former fally. The opera
with about four hun- was committed, as they met with tember,
essay of their strength tions againft the town proceeded proved extremely discouraging to with unremitted vigours and dilithem, and they were obliged to re gence. The bombardment contitire with loss and precipitation. ñued day and night. The navy, The superior kill and bravery of who had hitherto affifted no otherour troops appeared in so striking wife than by furniihing men and a light in this little engagement, stores, (in which, however, it was that it was thought it might prove of the greatest service) began now an inducement to the governor to to take a direct part. They placed endeavour at advantageaus terms
themselves as near the town; as the by an early surrender. But his depth of water would admit, and answer to the summons of our began a fire in order to second the commander was more fpirited than operations of the land forces, by the behaviour of his garrison had enfilading the front they prohitherto proved. It was plain we posed to attack. Although the had to expect nothing but what we ihallows obliged the Ships to keep were able to cominand.
at too great a distance to have all Through all the difficulties of the effect they willed, this fire, the season our works proceeded, which was opened on a new.guarand by the indefatigable vigour ter, and was kept up without interand unconquerable spirit of our sot- měliion, added not a little to the diers and learnen, three batteries fatigue of the garrifon, and to the for cannon and mortars were rail. confusion-and-terror of the inhabied, and played on the town with tants. confiderable effect. The Indians Whilft the fiege advanced in to from time to time continued their faccessful a manner by the perle. attack but they rather molested "verance, artde by the uncommon our troops, than obitructed their harmony and unted emports of the progress. Equally ignorant of the land a:d seas Forces, the couco laws of humanity and of arms, elemegts threatened to they murdered our people, whetc. defroy 2 condesah chetowOR ever they met them diperted from effects of the itdury and cou, the army; and even perpetrated rangeA dcluge of rain poured the famc cruelty on an Englith of down, accompanied by a sighty ficer, employed under the protec- torm of wind. The iquadron was tion of a flag of truce, and of an in the greatere diinger"; all com4 of generosity sc an enemy, in manicatiot vath it was entirely cut
oft. A forefhip, which had lately lifh from the storm; for the roararrived, and contained the greatett ing of the waves prevented the part of the tools and necessaries, Spaniards from hearing the noiseof which they were now in the of our workmen in the night, greatest want for compleating their Every circumstance of the storm, works, was driven on shore. The by a fortunate tårn, or by a judicia governor of the place added to the. ous management, became favouradvantage of these appearances in able to the attack, and they prohis favour, by calling in the aid: ceeded with so much contancy and of his ecclefiaftical character. To resolution, that in the midst of this raise the spirits of the inhabitants, violent tempeft, and deluged as funk by the progress of the be- they were with the heavy tropical liegers, he gave out that an angel rains, they compleated one large from the Lord was gone forth to battery for heavy cannon, and andestroy the English like the host of other for mortars, made good their Sennacherib.
parallels and communications, leBy an extraordinary species of cured their most material posts, good fortune, these menacing cir- and put themselves in a condition, cumstances were attended with their immediately on the ceasing of the particular advantages, and rather storm, to batter the place in facilitated than obitructed the pro- breach. gress of the siege. The foreships, Twelve pieces of cannon, on that by being driven alhore, without face of the basion which they atany considerable damage, gave an tacked, were filenced easy and ready access to all the mi- hours, and fo vigorous litary stores and provisions the kept up from the cannon ind mor
, contained, and which, if it had not tars upon all the parts, whence the been for this accident, could not Spaniards could annoy our troops have been supplied by boats in that in less than two days all their many days, as the wind continued defences were destroyed. The Spato blow for a long time after, and niards, seeing their fortifications no that a violent furf broke high upon longer tenable, determined to make the beach. Besides, in the situa- & conclusive effort, and to avail tion, in which this veffel lay on themselves of the strength of the fhore, her cannon, became, in a garrison, which their free commu. great degree, a protection to the nication with the country had rear of the English camp. At the made as numerous as they could same time, the confidence, which the wish. For that purpose they pro-, enemy reposed in the natural helps je&ted a fally, disposed in two atderived from the form, and in tack's upon the two most important those fupernatural ones added by posts of the English. The first was their fuperftition, rendered them to be made upon a cantonment of more remifs and languid in their the seamen, in which they judged, defence; and during that time if they could succeed, they must chey gave less obstruction to the lay the Englis under unsurprogress of our troops, than in any mountable difficulties, because the Other period of the fiege. Another feamen were known to have had avantage allo arole to the Enge the most considerable part in the